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Hector II AC -7 - Historie

Hector II AC -7 - Historie

Hector II

(AC-7: dp. 11.230; 1. 403 '; b. 53'; dr. 24'8 "; s. 12 k .; cpl. 82)

Hector (AC-7) blev lanceret 3. juli 1909 af Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md., Og fik i brug 22. oktober 1909. Hun var i særlig tjeneste hos Atlanterhavsflåden fra idriftsættelse til 1913, da hun var stationeret i Norfolk . Derfra tjente Hector som brændstofskib og færgede gods og brændstof op ad østkysten og ned til Caribien, især Guantanamo og Santo Domingo. Hector blev vraget ud for Atlanterhavskysten 14. juli 1916 og sank 3 dage senere.


En kort historie om Antifa: Del II

"Den eneste langsigtede løsning på den fascistiske trussel er at underminere dens styrker i samfundet, der ikke kun er baseret på hvid overherredømme, men også i kapabilisme, heteronormativitet, patriarkat, nationalisme, transfobi, klassestyre og mange andre." - Mark Bray, "Antifa: Den antifascistiske håndbog," 2017.

"De kommer fra andre byer. Det kostede penge. De gjorde ikke dette på egen hånd. Nogen betaler for dette. Det, Antifa gør, er, at de dybest set kaprer det sorte samfund som deres hær. De anstifter, de modsætter sig , de får disse unge sorte mænd og kvinder til at gå derud og lave dumme ting, og så forsvinder de ud i solnedgangen. " - Bernard Kerik, tidligere kommissær for New York City Police Department.

Den koordinerede vold rejser spørgsmål om, hvordan Antifa finansieres. Alliance for Global Justice (AFGJ) er en organiserende gruppe, der fungerer som en finanspolitisk sponsor for mange radikale venstreorienterede initiativer, ifølge Influence Watch, en forskningsgruppe, der indsamler data om fortalervirksomheder, fonde og donorer. Open Society Foundations, Tides Foundation, Arca Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation og Brightwater Fund har alle ydet bidrag til AFGJ, ifølge Influence Watch.

En af de grupper, der finansieres af AFGJ, kaldes Refuse Fascism. en udløber af Radical Communist Party (RCP). Gruppens slogan siger: "Dette system kan ikke reformeres, det skal styrtes!"

Redaktørens note: Dette er del II af en serie om historien om den globale Antifa -bevægelse. Del I beskrev Antifa og udforskede gruppens ideologiske oprindelse. Del II undersøger bevægelsens historie, taktik og mål i USA.

Antifa i USA er stærkt netværk, velfinansieret og har en klar ideologisk dagsorden: at undergrave, ofte med ekstrem vold, det amerikanske politiske system med det ultimative mål at erstatte kapitalisme med kommunisme. På billedet: En Antifa -demonstration den 16. november 2019 i New York City. (Foto af Stephanie Keith/Getty Images)

USA's præsident, Donald Trump, meddelte for nylig, at den amerikanske regering vil udpege Antifa-en militant "antifascistisk" bevægelse-som en terrororganisation på grund af den vold, der brød ud under George Floyd-protester i hele USA.

Code of Federal Regulations (28 CFR Section 0.85) definerer terrorisme som "ulovlig brug af magt og vold mod personer eller ejendom til at intimidere eller tvinge en regering, civilbefolkningen eller et hvilket som helst segment deraf, til fremme af politiske eller sociale mål. "

Amerikanske medier, der er sympatiske for Antifa, er sprunget i forsvaret. De hævder, at gruppen ikke kan klassificeres som en terrororganisation, fordi de hævder, at det er en vagt defineret protestbevægelse, der mangler en centraliseret struktur.

Som den følgende rapport viser, er Antifa i virkeligheden meget netværk, velfinansieret og har en klar ideologisk dagsorden: at undergrave, ofte med ekstrem vold, det amerikanske politiske system med det ultimative mål at erstatte kapitalisme med kommunisme. I USA er Antifas umiddelbare mål at fjerne præsident Trump fra sit embede.

Gatestone Institute har identificeret Antifa -grupper i alle 50 amerikanske stater, med den mulige undtagelse fra West Virginia. Nogle stater, herunder Californien, Texas og Washington, ser ud til at have snesevis af sub-regionale Antifa-organisationer.

Det er svært præcist at bestemme størrelsen af ​​Antifa -bevægelsen i USA. De såkaldte "Anti-Fascister i Reddit", "det førende antifascistiske samfund" på den sociale medieplatform Reddit, har cirka 60.000 medlemmer. Den ældste Antifa-gruppe i Amerika, Portland, Oregon-baserede "Rose City Antifa", har mere end 30.000 Twitter-følgere og 20.000 Facebook-følgere, som ikke alle nødvendigvis er tilhængere. "It's Going Down", en medieplatform for anarkister, antifascister og autonome antikapitalister, har 85.000 Twitter-følgere og 30.000 Facebook-følgere.

Tyskland, der har cirka en fjerdedel af befolkningen i USA, er hjemsted for 33.000 ekstreme venstreorienterede, hvoraf 9.000 menes at være ekstremt farlige, ifølge den indenlandske efterretningstjeneste (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, BfV). Voldsomme venstreorienterede agitatorer er overvejende mænd, mellem 21 og 24 år, normalt arbejdsløse, og ifølge BfV bor 92% stadig hos deres forældre. Anekdotiske beviser tyder på, at de fleste Antifa-medlemmer i USA har en lignende socioøkonomisk profil.

I Amerika finansieres nationale Antifa -grupper, herunder "Torch Antifa Network", "Refuse Fascism" og "World Can't Wait" - ofte generøst, som vist herunder - af individuelle donorer såvel som af store filantropiske organisationer, herunder Open Society Foundations grundlagt af George Soros.

For at undgå opdagelse fra lovhåndhævelse bruger Antifa -grupper i USA ofte krypterede sociale medieplatforme, såsom Signal og Telegram Messenger, til at kommunikere og koordinere deres aktiviteter, nogle gange på tværs af statsgrænser. Ikke overraskende undersøger det amerikanske justitsministerium i øjeblikket personer, der er knyttet til Antifa, som et skridt til at afdække den bredere organisation.

Historisk oprindelse af amerikansk Antifa

I USA lånes Antifas ideologi, taktik og mål, langt fra at være nye, næsten udelukkende fra Antifa-grupper i Europa, hvor såkaldte antifascistiske grupper i en eller anden form har været aktive, næsten uden afbrydelser, i et århundrede.

Som i Europa kan målsætningerne for den amerikanske Antifa-bevægelse spores tilbage til en enkelt, overordnet århundredelang ideologisk krig mod kapitalismens og kristendommens "fascistiske idealer", som Antifa-bevægelsen ønsker at erstatte med en "revolutionær socialist alternativ."

Den første såkaldte antifascistiske gruppe i USA var American League Against War and Fascism, der blev oprettet i 1933 af kommunistpartiet USA. Ligaen, der hævdede at modsætte sig fascisme i Europa, var faktisk dedikeret til at undergrave og vælte den amerikanske regering.

Som vidnesbyrd for den amerikanske kongres i 1953 afslørede CPUSA -leder Manning Johnson, at det amerikanske parti var blevet instrueret af den kommunistiske international i 1930'erne om at oprette den amerikanske liga mod krig og fascisme:

"som et dække for at angribe vores regering, vores sociale system, vores ledere. bruges som et dækning til at angribe vores retshåndhævende myndigheder og til at opbygge massehat mod dem. bruges som et dækning til at undergrave den nationale sikkerhed. bruges som et dækning til forsvare kommunister, de svorne fjender af vores store arv. bruges som dækning til at forberede millioner af mennesker ideologisk og organisatorisk på at vælte den amerikanske regering. "

En forløber for den moderne Antifa -bevægelse var Black Panthers, en revolutionær politisk organisation oprettet i oktober 1966 af marxistiske universitetsstuderende i Oakland, Californien. Gruppen gik ind for brug af vold og guerillataktik for at vælte den amerikanske regering.

Historikeren Robyn C. Spencer bemærkede, at Black Panther -ledere var dybt påvirket af "Arbejderklassens forenede front mod fascisme", en rapport af Georgi Dimitroff leveret på den syvende verdenskongres i Kommunistisk Internationale i juli og august 1935:

"I 1969 begyndte panterne at bruge fascisme som en teoretisk ramme for at kritisere den amerikanske politiske økonomi. De definerede fascisme som" finanskapitalens magt ", der 'ikke kun manifesterer sig som banker, tillid og monopol, men også som den menneskelige ejendom af FINANCE CAPITAL - den ivrige forretningsmand, den demagogiske politiker og den racistiske svinepoliti. '"

I juli 1969 arrangerede Black Panthers en "antifascistisk" konference kaldet "United Front Against Fascism", hvor næsten 5000 aktivister deltog:

"Panterne håbede at skabe en 'national kraft' med en 'fælles revolutionær ideologi og politisk program, der svarer til de grundlæggende ønsker og behov hos alle mennesker i det fascistiske, kapitalistiske, racistiske Amerika.'"

Den sidste dag i konferencen var afsat til en detaljeret plan af Black Panthers om at decentralisere politistyrker på landsplan. Spencer skrev:

"De foreslog at ændre bycharter for at etablere autonome samfundsbaserede politiafdelinger for hver by, der ville stå til ansvar over for lokale naboskabspolitiets kontrolråd bestående af 15 valgte samfundsmedlemmer. De lancerede de nationale komitéer til bekæmpelse af fascisme (NCCF), et multiracialt landsdækkende netværk , at organisere for fællesskabskontrol med politiet. "

I 1970 oprettede medlemmer af Black Panthers en terrorgruppe kaldet Black Liberation Army, hvis erklærede mål var at "svække fjendens kapitalistiske stat".

BLA -medlem Assata Shakur beskrev gruppens organisationsstruktur, der ligner den, der bruges af nutidens Antifa -bevægelse:

"Black Liberation Army var ikke en centraliseret, organiseret gruppe med en fælles ledelse og kommandokæde. I stedet var der forskellige organisationer og kollektiver, der arbejdede sammen fra forskellige byer, og i nogle større byer var der ofte flere grupper, der arbejdede uafhængigt af hinanden . "

Andre ideologiske ankre i den moderne Antifa-bevægelse i USA inkluderer en venstreorienteret terrorgruppe kendt som Weather Underground Organization, den amerikanske ækvivalent til Tysklands Røde Hær-fraktion. Weather Underground, der var ansvarlig for bombeangreb og optøjer i løbet af 1970'erne, forsøgte at opnå "ødelæggelsen af ​​den amerikanske imperialisme og danne en klasseløs kommunistisk verden."

Tidligere FBI -direktør for terrorbekæmpelse Terry Turchie har noteret lighederne mellem Black Lives Matter i dag og Black Panther Party og Weather Underground -grupperne i 1960'erne og 1970'erne:

"Black Panther Party var en marxistisk maoistisk leninistisk organisation, og den kom fra Huey Newton, en af ​​medstifterne, der sagde, at vi ikke står for andet end den totale transformation af USA's regering.

"Han fortsatte med at forklare, at de ville tage den spænding, der allerede eksisterede i sorte samfund, og forværre det, hvor de kan. At tage de situationer, hvor der er en tinderbox og tænde landet i brand.

"I dag ser vi den tredje revolution, og de tror, ​​at de kan få dette til at ske. Det eneste, der er anderledes, er gruppernes navne."

Amerikansk Antifa

Rødderne til den moderne Antifa-bevægelse i USA kan spores tilbage til 1980'erne med etableringen af ​​Anti-Racist Action, et netværk af anarkistiske punkrock-elskere dedikeret til knytnævekæmpende nynazistiske skinheads.

Mark Bray, forfatter til "Antifa -håndbogen, "forklarede:

"I mange tilfælde voksede den nordamerikanske moderne Antifa-bevægelse op som en måde at forsvare punk-scenen fra den nynazistiske skinhead-bevægelse, og grundlæggerne af det originale Anti-Racist Action-netværk i Nordamerika var anti-racistiske skinheads. fascistisk/antifascistisk kamp var i det væsentlige en kamp om kontrollen over punkscenen i 1980'erne, og det var sandt i store dele af Nordamerika og i dele af Europa i denne æra.

"Der er et enormt overlap mellem radikal venstrepolitik og punk -scenen, og der er en stereotype om beskidte anarkister og punkere, som er en forenkling, men baseret på en vis sandhed."

Anti-racistisk handling blev inspireret af Anti-Fascist Action (AFA), en militant antifascistisk gruppe, der blev grundlagt i Storbritannien i slutningen af ​​1970'erne. Den amerikanske gruppe delte den britiske gruppes hang til voldeligt at angribe politiske modstandere. ARA blev til sidst omdøbt til Torch Network, som i øjeblikket samler ni militante Antifa -grupper.

I november 1999 lagde mobber af maskerede anarkister, forgængere til nutidens Antifa -bevægelse, øde til downtown Seattle, Washington, under voldelige demonstrationer, der forstyrrede en ministerkonference i Verdenshandelsorganisationen. WTO-protesterne i Seattle fødte anti-globaliseringsbevægelsen.

I april 2001 samledes anslået 50.000 antikapitalister i Quebec for at modsætte sig Americas tredje topmøde, et møde mellem nord- og sydamerikanske ledere, der forhandlede en aftale om at skabe et frihandelsområde, der ville omfatte den vestlige halvkugle.

I februar 2003 demonstrerede hundredtusinder af anti-krigsdemonstranter mod Irak-krigen. Efter at krigen alligevel var foregået, blev nogle dele af den såkaldte progressive bevægelse mere radikaliseret og fødte den nuværende Antifa-bevægelse.

Rose City Antifa (RCA), grundlagt i Portland, Oregon, i 2007, er den ældste amerikanske gruppe, der har brugt "Antifa" i sit navn. Antifa er afledt af en gruppe kaldet Antifaschistische Aktion, grundlagt i maj 1932 af stalinistiske ledere for Tysklands kommunistiske parti. Antifas logo, med to flag, der repræsenterer anarkisme (sort flag) og kommunisme (rødt flag), stammer fra den tyske Antifa -bevægelse.

Den amerikanske Antifa-bevægelse tog fart i 2016, efter at Vermont-senator Bernie Sanders, en selvskreven socialist, mistede det demokratiske partis nominering til Hillary Clinton. Græsrods -tilhængere af Sanders lovede at fortsætte sin "politiske revolution" for at etablere socialisme i Amerika.

Imens blev immigration et nyt flammepunkt i amerikansk politik, efter at Donald Trump havde kæmpet for et løfte om at reducere illegal migration. I juni 2016 angreb demonstranter voldsomt tilhængere af Donald Trump uden for et stævne i San Jose, Californien. I januar 2017 forsøgte hundredvis af Antifa -optøjer at forstyrre præsident Trumps indvielsesceremoni i Washington, DC.

I februar 2017 lukkede Antio-optøjere med såkaldt sort blok-taktik-de bærer sort tøj, masker eller andre ansigtsskjulende genstande, så de ikke kan identificeres af politiet-lukker en tale af Milos Yiannopoulos, en højreekstrem aktivist, der var skulle tale ved University of California i Berkeley, fødestedet for Free Speech Movement fra 1964. Antifa -radikaler hævdede, at Yiannopoulos planlagde at "ud" udokumenterede studerende i Berkeley med det formål at få dem anholdt. Maskerede Antifa -vandaler bevæbnet med molotovcocktails, mursten og et væld af andre provisoriske våben kæmpede mod politiet og forårsagede over 100.000 dollars i ejendomsskade.

I juni 2018 introducerede den republikanske repræsentant Dan Donovan fra New York Bill HR 6054 - "Unmasking Antifa Act of 2018" - der kræver fængselsstraffe på op til 15 år for alle, der, mens de bærer en maske eller forklædning, "skader, undertrykker, truer eller skræmmer "en anden, der udøver enhver rettighed eller et privilegium, der er garanteret i henhold til den amerikanske forfatning. Lovforslaget er stadig gået i stå i Repræsentanternes Hus.

I juli 2019 forsøgte Antifa -radikale Willem Van Spronsen at brandbombe det amerikanske immigrations- og toldforvaltningsfængsel i Tacoma, Washington. Han blev dræbt i en konfrontation med politiet.

Samme måned indførte amerikanske senatorer Ted Cruz og Bill Cassidy en resolution, der ville stemple Antifa som en "indenlandsk terrororganisation". I beslutningen hed det:

"Mens medlemmer af Antifa, fordi de mener, at ytringsfrihed er ækvivalent med vold, har brugt trusler om vold i jagten på at undertrykke modsatte politiske ideologier, mens Antifa repræsenterer modstand mod de demokratiske idealer om fredelig forsamling og ytringsfrihed for alle, mens medlemmer af Antifa har fysisk overfaldet journalister og andre personer under protester og optøjer i Berkeley, Californien

"Nu skal det derfor løses, at senatet. Opfordrer til, at de grupper og organisationer i hele landet, der handler under Antifas banner, udpeges som indenlandske terrororganisationer."

"Antifa er terrorister, voldelige maskerede mobbere, der 'bekæmper fascisme' med egentlig fascisme, beskyttet af liberale privilegier," sagde Cassidy. "Mobbere får deres vej, indtil nogen siger nej. Valgte embedsmænd skal have mod, ikke fejhed, for at forhindre terror."

Antifa udnytter George Floyds død

Antifa -radikaler bruger i stigende grad brandhændelser som George Floyds død i Minnesota som springbrætter for at nå deres bredere mål, hvoraf den ene omfatter fjernelse af præsident Trump fra embedet.

Veteranens nationale sikkerhedskorrespondent Bill Gertz rapporterede for nylig, at Antifa-bevægelsen begyndte at planlægge at støtte et landsdækkende anti-regeringsoprør allerede i november 2019, da den amerikanske præsidentkampagnesæson for alvor begyndte. Tidligere medlem af National Security Council Rich Higgins sagde:

"Antifas handlinger repræsenterer et hårdt brud med den lange tradition for en fredelig politisk proces i USA. Deres marxistiske ideologi søger ikke kun at påvirke valg på kort sigt, men ødelægge brugen af ​​valg som den afgørende faktor i politisk legitimitet.

"Antifas mål er intet mindre end at fremme revolution, borgerkrig og tavse Amerikas antikommunister. Deres mærkning af Trump-tilhængere og patrioter som nazister og racister er standardpris for venstreorienterede kommunistiske grupper.

"Antifa fungerer i øjeblikket som kommando og kontrol over optøjerne, som selv er åbenlys udnyttelse af målrettet vold mod mål som f.eks. Butikker - kapitalismemonumenter - historie og kirker - Gud."

Joe Myers, en tidligere Defence Intelligence Agency -embedsmand og ekspert i modoprør, tilføjede:

"Præsident Trumps valg og revitalisering af Amerika er en trussel mod Antifas nihilistiske mål. De støtter denne vold for at skabe kaos, fortvivlelse og for at målrette Trumps kampagne for nederlag i 2020. Den anvender organiseret vold til politiske formål: ødelæggelse af den forfatningsmæssige bestille."

New Yorks øverste terrorofficer, vicekommissær for efterretning og terrorbekæmpelse, John Miller, forklarede, hvorfor George Floyd -protesterne i New York City blev så voldelige og ødelæggende:

"Nr. 1, før protesterne begyndte, satte arrangørerne af visse anarkistiske grupper sig for at rejse kaution, og folk, der ville være ansvarlige for at skaffe kaution, satte de sig for at rekruttere læger og medicinske teams med redskaber til at indsætte i påvente af voldelige samspil med politiet.

"De forberedte sig på at begå ejendomsskade og instruerede folk, der fulgte dem om, at dette skulle gøres selektivt og kun i velhavende områder eller i eksklusive butikker, der drives af virksomhedsenheder.

"Og de udviklede et komplekst netværk af cykelspejdere til at bevæge sig foran demonstranter i forskellige retninger af, hvor politiet var, og hvor politiet ikke var med henblik på at kunne lede grupper fra den større gruppe til steder, hvor de kunne begå hærværk, herunder brænding af politibiler og molotovcocktails, hvor de troede, at betjente ikke ville være.

"Vi mener, at en betydelig mængde mennesker, der kom hertil fra uden for området, som er kommet hertil såvel som forhåndsforberedelsen, har forhåndsspejdere, brug af krypteret information, har genudleveringsruter til ting som benzin og acceleratorer som såvel som sten og flasker, hævelse af kaution, lægning af læger. Tilsammen er dette en stærk indikator på, at de planlagde at handle med uorden, ejendomsskade, vold og voldelige møder med politiet før den første demonstration og/eller før den første anholdelse. "

I et interview med Epoketiden, Sagde Bernard B. Kerik, tidligere politikommissær for New York City Police Department, at Antifa "100 procent udnyttede" George Floyd -protesterne:

"Det er i 40 forskellige stater og 60 byer, det ville være umuligt for nogen uden for Antifa at finansiere dette. Det er et radikalt, venstreorienteret, socialistisk forsøg på revolution.

"De kommer fra andre byer. Det kostede penge. De gjorde ikke dette på egen hånd. Nogen betaler for dette.

"Hvad Antifa gør, er, at de dybest set kaprer det sorte samfund som deres hær. De anstifter, de modsætter sig, de får disse unge sorte mænd og kvinder til at gå derud og lave dumme ting, og så forsvinder de ud i solnedgangen. "

Efter at billeder viste sig at vise demonstranter med kommunikationsradioer og øretelefoner af militærniveau, bemærkede Kerik: "De skal tale med nogen på en central kommandocentral med en repeater. Hvor skal radioerne hen?"

Over hele landet, i Bellevue, Washington, som også blev ramt af plyndringer og vold, bekræftede politimester Steve Mylett, at de ansvarlige var organiseret, ude fra byen og blev betalt:

"Der er grupper, der betaler disse plyndrere penge for at komme ind, og de bliver betalt af det knuste vindue. Det er noget helt andet, vi har at gøre med, som vi aldrig har set som et erhverv før. Vi havde officerer, der befandt sig i forskellige områder der jagtede disse grupper. Når vi får kontakt, spredes de bare. "

Antifa Finansiering

Den koordinerede vold rejser spørgsmål om, hvordan Antifa finansieres. Alliance for Global Justice (AFGJ) er en organiserende gruppe, der fungerer som en finanspolitisk sponsor for mange radikale venstreorienterede initiativer, ifølge Influence Watch, en forskningsgruppe, der indsamler data om fortalervirksomheder, fonde og donorer.

AFGJ, der beskriver sig selv som "antikapitalistisk" og i modsætning til principperne om det liberale demokrati, yder "finanspolitisk sponsorat" til grupper, der går ind for talrige udenlandske og indenlandske yder-venstre- og ekstrem-venstre-årsager, herunder eliminering af staten Israel.

De Tucson, Arizona-baserede AFGJ, og mennesker, der er forbundet med det, har været fortaler for socialistiske og kommunistiske autoritære regimer, herunder i Cuba, Nicaragua og Venezuela. I 2000'erne var AFGJ involveret i demonstrationer mod globalisering. I 2010'erne var AFGJ en finansiel sponsor for Occupy Wall Street -bevægelsen.

AFGJ har modtaget betydelig finansiering fra organisationer, der ofte hævder at være mainstream for centrum-venstre. Open Society Foundations, Tides Foundation, Arca Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation, Ben & Jerry Foundation og Brightwater Fund har alle ydet bidrag til AFGJ, ifølge Influence Watch.

En af de grupper, der finansieres af AFGJ, kaldes Refuse Fascism, en radikal venstreorienteret organisation, der går ind for at fremme landsdækkende aktioner for at fjerne præsident Donald Trump og alle embedsmænd, der er tilknyttet hans administration, med den begrundelse, at de udgør et "fascistisk regime. " Gruppen har været til stede ved mange demonstrationer i Antifa radikal-venstre, også ifølge Influence Watch. Gruppen er en udløber af det revolutionære kommunistiske parti (RCP).

I juli 2017 pralede RCP, at den deltog i voldelige optøjer mod G20 -topmødet i Hamburg, Tyskland. RCP har argumenteret for, at kapitalisme er synonymt med fascisme, og at valget af præsident Trump ville føre den amerikanske regering til at "bludgeon og eliminere hele grupper af mennesker."

I juni 2020 udnyttede Refuse Fascisme George Floyds død til at rejse penge til en "National Revolution Tour", der åbenbart havde til formål at undergrave den amerikanske regering. Gruppens slogan siger: "Dette system kan ikke reformeres, det skal styrtes!"

Antifas "Utopia"

I mellemtiden tog Seattle, Washington, Antifa-radikaler, demonstranter fra Black Lives Matter og medlemmer af antikapitalisten John Brown Gun Club kontrollen over kvarteret East Precinct og etablerede en "autonom zone" på seks kvadratblokke kaldet Capitol Hill Autonom Zone, "CHAZ", for nylig omdøbt til "CHOP", Capitol Hill Organiseret (eller Besat) Protest. Et papskilt ved barrikaderne erklærer: "Du forlader nu USA." Gruppen udsendte en liste med 30 krav, herunder "afskaffelsen" af Seattle Police Department og retssystemet.

"Voldtægter, røverier og alle former for voldelige handlinger har fundet sted i området, og vi er ikke i stand til at nå dem," sagde politimester i Seattle, Carmen Best. Flere mennesker er blevet såret eller dræbt.

Christopher F. Rufo, en medvirkende redaktør af City Journal, observeret:

"Den autonome zone i Capitol Hill har skabt en farlig præcedens: bevæbnede venstreorienterede aktivister har hævdet deres dominans på gaderne og etableret en alternativ politisk autoritet over en stor del af et kvarter. De har hævdet de facto politimagt over tusinder af beboere og snesevis af virksomheder-helt uden for den demokratiske proces. I løbet af få dage har Antifa-tilknyttede paramilitærer skabt en hærdet grænse, etableret en rudimentær regeringsform baseret på principper for tværgående repræsentation og tvangsfjernet uvenlige medier fra territoriet.

"Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone er en besættelse og optagelse af gidsler: ingen af ​​kvarterets beboere stemte på Antifa som deres repræsentative regering. I stedet for at håndhæve loven kapitulerede Seattles progressive politiske klasse til mobben og vil sandsynligvis gøre massive indrømmelser i løbet af den næste få måneder. Dette vil styrke Antifa -koalitionen - og yderligere undergrave retsstaten i amerikanske byer. "

Antifa i sine egne ord

Den amerikanske Antifa-bevægelses langsigtede mål er identiske med Antifa-bevægelsens i Europa: erstatning af kapitalisme med et kommunistisk utopi. Mark Bray, en af ​​de mest vokale undskyldere for Antifa i USA og forfatter til "Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook", forklarede:

"Den eneste langsigtede løsning på den fascistiske trussel er at underminere dens styrker i samfundet, der ikke kun er baseret på hvid overherredømme, men også i kapabilisme, heteronormativitet, patriarkat, nationalisme, transfobi, klassestyre og mange andre. Dette langsigtede målet peger på de spændinger, der er ved at definere antifascisme, fordi ødelæggelse af fascisme på et bestemt tidspunkt i virkeligheden handler om at fremme et revolutionært socialistisk alternativ. "

Nikkita Oliver, tidligere borgmesterkandidat i Seattle, Washington, tilføjede:

"Vi er nødt til at tilpasse os den globale kamp, ​​der anerkender, at USA spiller en rolle i racialiseret kapitalisme. Racialiseret kapitalisme er bygget på patriarkat, hvid overherredømme og klassisme."

Patrisse Cullors, medstifter af Black Lives Matter-bevægelsen, bekræftede, at det umiddelbare mål er at fjerne præsident Trump fra sit embede:

"Trump behøver ikke bare ikke at være i embedet i november, men han bør træde tilbage nu. Trump skal være ude af kontoret. Han er ikke egnet til embedsværket. Og det, vi vil presse på, er et skridt for at få Trump Selvom vi også vil fortsætte med at presse og presse Joe Biden omkring hans politik og forhold til politi og kriminalisering. Det bliver vigtigt. Men vores mål er at få Trump ud. "

"Som antifascister ved vi, at vores kamp ikke kun er mod organiseret fascisme, men også mod den kapitalistiske stat og politiet, der beskytter den. En anden verden er mulig!"

"Dette er revolutionen, det er vores tid, og vi vil ikke undskylde for terroren."

En gruppe kaldet PNW Youth Liberation Front, Antifas ungdomsorganisation, tweetede:

"Den eneste måde at vinde en verden uden politi, fængsler, grænser osv. Er at ødelægge de undertrykkende systemer, som vi i øjeblikket er fanget i. Vi skal fortsætte kampen mod staten, imperialisme, kapitalisme, hvid overherredømme, patriarkat osv. hvis vi nogensinde vil være fri. "

En pjece distribueret i Seattle "Autonomous Zone" sagde:

"Tanken om, at arbejderklassen kan styre vores eget liv, uden stater, regeringer eller grænser, kaldes også anarkisme. Men hvordan kommer vi fra vores nuværende kapitalistiske samfund til et fremtidigt anarkistisk-kommunistisk?. For at ødelægge det nuværende orden, bliver der brug for en revolution, en tid med stor omvæltning. "

På en plakat i Seattle "Autonomous Zone" stod der:

"Åh, du troede, at jeg bare ville forsvinde politiet? Hele dette system skal gå."

En af lederne for Seattle "Autonomous Zone" sagde:

"Hver eneste dag, jeg dukker op her, er jeg ikke her for fredeligt at protestere. Jeg er her for at forstyrre, indtil mine krav er opfyldt. Du kan ikke genopbygge, før du bryder det helt ned. Reager på folkets krav eller forbered dig på at blive mødt med alle nødvendige midler. På alle nødvendige måder. Det er ikke et slogan eller endda en advarsel. Jeg lader folk vide, hvad der kommer derefter. "

En gruppe kaldet Revolutionary Abolitionist Movement, som har næsten 15.000 Twitter -følgere, opfordrede til en opstand:

"Revolutionære hilsner fra opstanden, der skyller gennem de besatte områder i de såkaldte Amerikas Forenede Stater.

"Da historien om denne elendige nation gentager sig igen, er det klart blevet tydeligt, at sorte mennesker har været og vil blive den eneste revolutionære kraft, der er i stand til at vælte den undertrykkende status quo.

"Overalt har grisene [en nedsættende betegnelse for politi] mistet deres vilje til at kæmpe. Deres øjne, der kun i går var vinduer for at tømme had og foragt, udviser nu forvirrende selvtillid og fejhed. For en gangs skyld skildrer deres adfærd deres svaghed som hvert skridt, de tager tilbage, er præget af tøven.

"Sammen, hvis vi bliver ved med at presse på, kan dette land med løsøre slaveri, oprindeligt folkemord og udenlandsk kejserlig aggression endelig udslettes, så det kun huskes som et af de mere grimme kapitler i menneskets historie."

En Antifa -radikal fra Maryland tweetede:

"Dette er ikke protest. Dette er oprør. Når oprøret bliver organiseret, får vi revolution. Vi ser begyndelsen på det, og det er herligt."

En Antifa -agitator fra New York kommenterer det amerikanske flag:

"Sh*t er en fucking klud med farver på. Den lever ikke eller ånder og er intet andet end en repræsentation. Enhver sort, latinx eller indfødt person, der ser på den ting, der bliver respekteret, skal fornærmes over det flag, der repræsenterer folkedrab, voldtægt, slaveri og kolonisering. "

En Antifa -medieplatform, "It's Going Down", skrev:

"Plyndring er et effektivt middel til omfordeling af rigdom."

En Antifa -aktivist fra North Carolina om ytringsfrihed:

"Ideen om, at ytringsfrihed er det vigtigste, som vi kan beskytte, kan kun holdes af en, der mener, at livet er analogt med en debatsal. Efter min mening krænker 'ingen platformning' -fascister ofte deres tale , men denne krænkelse er berettiget for sin rolle i den politiske kamp mod fascisme. "

Torch Antifa Network, som svar på præsident Trumps bebudede planer om at udpege Antifa som en terrorgruppe:

"Antifa vil udpege USA som en terrororganisation."

Soeren Kern er Senior Fellow i New York-baserede Gatestone Institute.

© 2021 Gatestone Institute. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. The articles printed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editors or of Gatestone Institute. No part of the Gatestone website or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied or modified, without the prior written consent of Gatestone Institute.


Epidemiology /Etiology [ edit | rediger kilde]

Injuries to the AC Joint account for approximately 10% of acute injuries to the shoulder girdle, with separations of the AC Joint accounting for 40% of shoulder girdle injuries in athletes. Commonly, injury happens when falling onto an outstretched hand or elbow, direct blows to the shoulder, or falling onto the point of the shoulder. [6]

Figure 2 illustrates the common mechanism of injury:
(A) a direct force onto the point of the shoulder
(B) indirect forces to the AC joint can also cause injury. For example, a fall on to the elbow can drive the humerus proximally, disrupting the AC joint. In this case, the force is referred only to the AC ligaments and not the coracoclavicular ligaments. [8]

The injury is frequently seen in hockey and rugby players, but is also seen in alpine skiing, snowboarding, football, cycling and motor vehicle accidents. [9] [10]


Hector II AC-7 - History

(SS-10: dp. 145, 1. 82'5" b. 12'6" dr. 10'7" s. 9 k.
cpL 10 a. 2 18" TT. cl. B)

B-1 was launched 30 March 1907 by Ebre River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass., as Viper (SS-10), sponsored by Mrs. Lawrence Y. Spear commissioned 18 October 1907, Lieutenant D. C. Gingham in command and reported to the 2d Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet.

Viper cruised along the Atlantic coast on training and experimental exercises until going into reserve at Charleston Navy Yard 30 November 1909. Recommissioned 15 April 1910 she served with the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet until assigned to the Reserve Torpedo Group at Charleston Navy Yard g May 1911. On 17 November 1911 her name was changed to B-1. In April 1914 B-1 was towed to Norfolk and later loaded on board Hector (AC-7) for transport to the Philippine Islands. Arriving at Olongapo, Luzon, 24 March 1915 B-1 was launched from the deck of Hector 15 April 1915 and recommissioned two days later.

B-1 was assigned to the 1st Submarine Division, Torpedo Flotilla, Asiatic Fleet, 19 May 1915 and later served with the 2nd Submarine Division in Manila Bay. On 1 December 1921 B-l was decommissioned at Cavite, Philippine Islands, and subsequently used as a target.


Indhold

Troy is a new period for Total War and is the furthest back the franchise has ever gone in history. Ώ] Unlike the major era Total War Games, the Total War Saga titles tend to focus on key flashpoints in history, often within a singular culture, meaning the 20-year war Trojan War was an ideal choice of setting. Ώ] This period is also rich in myth, legend, heroes and monsters, which allowed the developers to explore a variety of new ideas. Ώ]

A unique approach was taken in regards to research, using both mythological sources such as Homer’s Iliad as well as historical data such as archaeological recordings and expert materials on the Bronze Age Collapse. Ώ] This merging of source material provided the developers with their key design pillar, portraying a more accurate world that might have inspired the legendary accounts of this era. Ώ] For example, the game will feature historical representations of renowned mythological monsters, such as a hulking man wearing hides and a bull’s skull to evoke a Minotaur. Ώ]

The legendary setting also inspired the use of a romanticised art style for Troy, visible throughout the campaign overview and user interface. Ώ] It blends the Hellenic artistry of the Iliad with a real-world representation of the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Ώ]


A History of Canadian Soldiers in World War 2

In WW1, Canada was automatically committed to war when Britain declared war. This was not the case in WW2, but there was never much doubt about Canada’s involvement, and the country declared war on September 10th, 1939.

The Early Days of the War

58,000 soldiers enlisted in the first month alone, and by December troops were already heading over to Britain. In total, about 250,000 went overseas to fight over the course of the war. Because of the bad start to the war for Britain, where France became occupied early on, Canada became Britain’s main ally during the first year.

Huge Sea and Air Commitment

Canada played a significant role in the air and at sea. Canada played a large role in the Battle of the Atlantic, which lasted throughout the war. The German U-boat offensive attempted to cut the lifeline provided to Britain, and Canada provided support through the contribution of the Canadian Merchant Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.

It protected the convoys crossing the Atlantic by providing corvettes, minesweepers, destroyers and more. The Royal Canadian Air Force also assisted, and it provided an escort for the shipping. It was tough at the start, but it became a very effective force.

The Royal Canadian Navy was the third-largest fleet in the world by the end of the war, having enlisted 100,000 men and 6,500 women. It sank many submarines, but it also lost a large number of warships.

Canada’s air support was crucial throughout the war. It supported Britain’s Bomber Command from 1943 to 1945, contributing a huge strike force. It was very successful, but nearly 10,000 lost their lives.

The Royal Canadian Air Force had a huge role in the war, and it was very important to the Allied victory. Many thousands enlisted over the course of the war, and thousands also served in the Royal Air Force.

The Battle for Hong Kong

On December 8th, 1941, Canadian troops and others were defending Hong Kong when they were surprised by Japanese troops, who overwhelmed them. They were overrun in just over two weeks, and nearly 300 were killed and hundreds more injured. Many survivors were taken prisoner in appalling conditions, and almost 300 died while in captivity.

German Attacks in Canadian Waters

In Canada, life was affected for everyone. Price controls and wage controls were introduced in 1941, and rations were brought in during 1942. But millions volunteered and helped with salvage and other tasks.

Canada also faced German hostility in its own waters. German submarines attacked Canadian waters and Newfoundland waters and sank more than 100 ships. They got as far as the Gulf of St Lawrence.

The Worst Day

The worst moment for Canada came with the attack on Dieppe in 1942, which was a disaster. 5,000 troops attacked, with support from Britain, but the Germans had strong defences and 807 Canadian troops were killed and 1,946 captured. It was the worst loss for Canada in a single day.

Canada’s D-Day

Canada played a large role on D-Day on June 6th, 1944. 14,000 of the 150,000 soldiers were Canadian, and the Royal Canadian Navy also contributed ships and men. Canada then went on to play a large role in the campaign in Normandy.

The Price of Victory

Canada’s role was crucial in the war effort. As well as the above contributions, it also played a significant role in the campaign against Italy from 1943-45, helping to capture Sicily in July 1943 and later capturing Ortona.

But there was a high cost of victory. Over 42,000 lost their lives, and 54,000 were wounded. The war changed the country considerably, and to this day Canada proudly remembers all those who contributed to the war effort for the huge commitment they made.


Presidents, Parades, and Priests: A New Kind of Pope

John Paul II was born in 1920 and was appointed pope in 1978. In fact, he had only been pope for two years prior to this assassination attempt. Known as a pope for the people, John Paul II was a different kind of priest.

When you think about it, John Paul II was the first to become pope in an era where televisions were a norm in the average household. John Paul II definitely took advantage of the visibility that television offered. He was very much in the public eye for much of the late ‘70s, ‘80s, and ‘90s. Cities threw parades for him. Celebrities shook hands with him. It did not take long for John Paul II to take the world by storm.

The assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II occured on April 13, 1981. The pope had just arrived at Saint Peter's Square and greeted a crowd of 10,000 people. While blessing a man with a camera, the shot went off the camera man’s footage shows the pope seconds after being shot. On the footage, John Paul II was as cool, calm, and collected as possible, considering the circumstances.

The shooter’s name was Mehmet Ali Ağca. Mehmet was a 23-year-old man from Turkey. He was able to get a good shot on the pope, but did not do any further damage. Today, we may be more used to shootings that look like random acts of violence, crowds of people being dealt blow after blow. But Ağca only had one target that day.

In the aftermath of the shooting, two parts of the pope’s intestines were removed. Aside from that, there was not much lasting damage. John Paul II was able to make a quick recovery, but that is not where the story ends. A case like this seems pretty "open and shut." A man fired a gun at a figurehead, and was caught right away, right? Well, here’s where it gets wild.


Where Did Winston Churchill Deliver the "Never Give Up" Speech?

The famous speech where Winston Churchill spoke of never giving up was delivered at Harrow School on October 29, 1941. Many of Churchill's speeches were memorable, but this speech is most remembered for the lines that start, ". never give in, never give in, never, never, never - in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense."

Prior to this speech, Prime Minister Churchill discovered that the school had added a verse to one of the traditional songs in his honor. The verse referred to darker days, and Churchill requested it to be changed to sterner days. He wanted the people to look at the days of war as days of change and greatness, not as dark days. The fact that the days of war were hard and difficult could not be ignored, so the word change was made.

Even after the war and his time as Prime Minister, Churchill was well liked by the citizens of England. He faced many health issues, starting as early as 1941, but was able to manage them until he had a series of strokes in 1953. The strokes had caused his retirement in 1955. Although he remained in Parliament until 1964, he did not seek re-election. When he passed away at age 90, the United Kingdom mourned him for a long period.


Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science From Trade to Territory Textbook Evaluation

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
The ruler of Bengal in 1757 was ……………
(a) Shuja – ud – daulah
(b) Siraj – ud – daulah
(c) Mirkasim
(d) Tippu Sultan
Svar:
(b) Siraj – ud – daulah

Question 2.
The Battle of Plassey was fought in ………………
(a) 1757
(b) 1764
(c) 1765
(d) 1775
Svar:
(a) 1757

Question 3.
Which among the following treaty was signed after Battle of Buxar?
(a) Treaty of Allahabad
(b) Treaty of Carnatic
(c) Treaty of Alinagar
(d) Treaty of Paris
Svar:
(a) Treaty of Allahabad]

Question 4.
The Treaty of Pondichery brought the …………….. Carnatic war to an end .
(a) First
(b) Second
(c) Third
(d) None
Svar:
(b) Second

Question 5.
When did Hyder Ali crown on the throne of Mysore?
(a) 1756
(b) 1761
(c) 1763
(d) 1764
Svar:
(b) 1761

Question 6.
Treaty of Mangalore was signed between ……………..
(a) The French and Tippu Sultan
(b) Hyder Ali and Zamorin of Calicut
(c) The British and Tippu Sultan
(d) Tippu Sultan andMarathas
Svar:
(c) The British and Tippu Sultan]

Question 7.
Who was the British Governor General during Third Anglo – Mysore War?
(a) Robert Clive
(b) Warren Hastings
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord Wellesley
Svar:
(c) Lord Cornwallis]

Question 8.
Who signed the Treaty of Bassein with the British?
(a) Bajirao II
(b) DaulatraoScindia
(c) SambhajiBhonsle
(d) SayyajiraoGaekwad
Svar:
(a) Bajirao II

Question 9.
Who was the last Peshwa of Maratha empire?
(a) BalajiVishwanath
(b) BajiRao II
(c) BalajiBajiRao
(d) BajiRao
Svar:
(d) BajiRao

Question 10.
Who was the first Indian state to join the subsidiary Alliance?
(a) Oudh
(b) Hyderabad
(c) Udaipur
(d) Gwalior
Svar:
(b) Hyderabad

  1. The Treaty of Alinagar was signed in ……………..
  2. The commander in Chief of Sirajuddaula was ……………….
  3. The main cause for the Second Carnatic war was ……………….
  4. ………………. adopted the policy of Doctrine of Lapse to extend the British Empire in India.
  5. Tippu Sultan was finally defeated at the hands of ……………….
  6. After the death of Tippu Sultan Mysore was handed over to ……………….
  7. In 1800, ………………… established a college at Fort William in Calcutta.
  1. 1757
  2. Mir Jafar
  3. The issue of succession
  4. Lord Dalhousie
  5. Arthur Wellesely
  6. Krishna Raja Odayar
  7. Lord Wellesley]

Question 1.
After the death of Alivardi Khan, Siraj – ud – daula ascended the throne of Bengal.
Svar:
Sand

Question 2.
Hector Munro, led the British forces in the battle of Plassey.
Svar:
False
Correct statement:
Robert Clive, led the British forces in the battle of Plassey.

Question 3.
The outbreak of the Austrian war of succession in Europe was led to Second Carnatic War in India.
Svar:
False
Correct statement:
The outbreak of the Austrian war of succession in Europe was led to First Carnatic War in India.

Question 4.
Sir Elijalmpey was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at Fort William in Bengal.
Svar:
Sand

Question 5.
The Police system was created by Lord Cornwallis.
Svar:
Sand

V. Which one of the following is correctly matched?

  1. Battle of Adayar – 1748
  2. Battle of Ambur – 1754
  3. Battle of Wandiwash – 1760
  4. Battle of Arcot – 1749

Svar:
3. Battle of Wandiwash – 1760

VI. Answer the following in one or two sentences

Question 1.
Write a short note on Black Hole Tragedy.
Svar:
There was a small dungeon room in the Fort William in Calcutta, where troops of the Nawab of Bengal Siraj – ud – daula, held 146 British Prisoners of war for one night. Next day morning, when the door was opened 123 of the prisoners found dead because of suffocation.

Question 2.
What were the benefits derived by the English after the Battle of Plassey?
Svar:
After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the company was granted undisputed right to have free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the place of 24 parganas in Bengal.

Question 3.
Mention the causes for the Battle of Buxar.
Svar:
Mir Qasim the son in law of the Nawab of Bengal revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the destakes (free duty passes).

Question 4.
What were the causes for the First Mysore War?
Causes:

  1. Haider Ali’s growing power and his friendly relations with the French became a matter of concern for the English East India Company.
  2. The Marathas, the Nizam and the English entered into a triple alliance against Haider Ali.

Question 5.
Bring out the results of the Third Maratha War.

  1. The Maratha confederacy was dissolved and Peshwaship was abolished.
  2. Most of the territory of Peshwa BajiRao II was annexed and became part of the Bombay Presidency
  3. The defeat of the Bhonsle and Holkar also resulted in the acquisition of the Maratha kingdoms of Nagpur and Indore by the British.
  4. The BajiRao II, the last Peshwa of Maratha was given an annual pension of 8 lakh rupees.

Question 6.
Name the states signed into Subsidiary Alliance.
Svar:
Hyderabad (1798). It was followed by Tanjore (1799), Auadh (1801), Peshwa (1802), Bhonsle (1803), Gwalior (1804), Indore (1817), Jaipur, Udaipur and Jodhpur (1818).

VII. Answer the following in detail

Question 1.
Write an essay on second Carnatic war.
Svar:
In the 18th century, three Carnatic wars were fought between various Indian rulers, British and French East Indian Company on either side.

1. The main cause of this war was the issue of succession in Carnatic and Hyderabad. Anwaruddin Khan and Chanda Sahib were the two claimants to the throne of Carnatic, whereas Nasir Jang and Muzaffar Jang were claimants to the throne of Hyderabad.

2. The French supported Chanda sahib and Muzaffar Jang, while the British supported the other claimants with the objective of keeping their interest and influence in the entire Deccan region.

1. Finally Dupleix, Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jang formed a grand alliance and defeated and killed Anwar-ud-din Khan, the Nawab of Carnatic, in the Battle of Ambur.

2. Muhammad Ali, the son of Anwar – ud – din, fled to Trichinopoly.

3. Chanda Sahib became the Nawab of Carnatic and rewarded the French with the grant of 80 villages around Pondicherry.

4. In the Deccan, the French defeated and killed Nasir Jang and made Muzaffar Jang as the Nizam.

5. The new Nizam gave ample rewards to the French.

6. He appointed Dupleix as the governor of all the territories in south of the river Krishna. Muzaffar Jang was assassinated by his own people.

7. Salabat Jang, brother of Nasir Jang was raised to the throne by Bussy.

8. Salabat Jang granted the Northern Circars to the French.

9. Dupleix’s power was at its zenith by that time.

1. In the meantime, Dupleix sent forces to besiege the fort of Trichy

2. Chanda Sahib also joined with the French in their efforts to besiege Trichy. Robert Clive’s proposal was accepted by the British governor, Saunders, and with only 200 English and 300 Indian soldiers, Clive was entrusted the task of capturing Arcot. His attack proved successful.

3. Robert Clive defeated the French at Ami and Kaveripak. With the assistance of Lawrence, Chanda Sahib was killed in Trichy. Muhammad Ali was made the Nawab of Arcot under British protection. The French Government recalled Dupleix to Paris.

Treaty of Pondicherry (1755):

1. Dupleix was succeeded by Godeheu who agreed the treaty of Pondicherry. According to it, both the powers agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the native states. They were to retain their old positions. New forts should not be built by either power. The treaty made the British stronger.

2. The second Carnatic war also proved inconclusive. The English proved their superiority on land by appointing Mohammad Ali as the Nawab of Carnatic. The French were still very powerful in Hyderabad. However, the predominant position of the French in the Deccan peninsula was definitely undermined in this war.

Question 2.
Give an account of the Fourth Anglo Mysore war.
Svar:
The Fourth Anglo – Mysore War:
Tipu Sultan did not forget the humiliating treaty of Srirangapatnam imposed upon him by Cornwallis in 1790.
Causes:

  1. Tipu sought alliance with foreign powers against the English and sent ambassadors to Arabia, Turkey, Afghanistan and the French.
  2. Tipu was in correspondence with Napoleon who invaded Egypt at that time.
  3. The French officers came to Srirangapatnam where they founded a Jacobin Club and planted the Tree of Liberty.

1. Wellesley declared war against Tipu in 1799. The war was short and decisive. As planned, the Bombay army under General Stuart invaded Mysore from the west.

2. The Madras army, which was led by the Governor – General’s brother, Arthur Wellesley, forced Tipu to retreat to his capital Srirangapatnam.

3. On 4th May 1799 Srirangapatnam was captured. Tipu fought bravely and was killed finally. Thus ended the fourth Mysore War and the whole of Mysore lay prostrate before the British.

  1. The English occupied Kanara, Wynad. Coimbatore. Darapuram and Srirangapattinam.
  2. Krishna Raja Odayar of the former Hindu royal family was brought to the throne.
  3. Tipu’s family was sent to the fort of Vellore.

Question 3.
Describe the policy adopted by Lord Dalhousie to expand the British empire in India.
Svar:
Doctrine of Lapse:
1. Lord Dalhousie was one of the chief architects of the British Empire in India. He was an imperialist. He adopted a new policy known as Doctrine of Lapse to extend British Empire.

2. He made use of this precedent and declared in 1848 that if the native rulers adopted children without the prior permission of the Company, only the personal properties of the rulers would go to the adopted sons and the kingdoms would go to the British paramount power. This principle was called the Doctrine of Lapse.

3. It was bitterly opposed by the Indians and it was one of the root causes for the great revolt of 1857.

Question 4.
How did Lord Wellesley expand the British
Svar:
The Subsidiary Alliance:

  1. Lord Wellesley introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance to bring the princely states under the control of the British.
  2. It was the most effective instrument for the expansion of the British territory and political influence in India.
  3. The princely state was called ‘the protected state’ and the British came to be referred as ‘the paramount power’.
  4. It was the duty of the British to safeguard the state from external aggression and to help its ruler in maintaining internal peace.

Main Features of Subsidiary Alliance:

  1. An Indian ruler entering into this alliance with the British had to dissolve his own armed forces and accept British Forces.
  2. A British Resident would stay in his capital.
  3. Towards the maintenance charges of the army, he should make annual payments or cede some territory permanently to the Company.
  4. All the non – English European officials should be turned out of his state.
  5. The native ruler should deal with foreign states only through the English Company.
  6. The British would undertake to defend the state from internal trouble as well as external attack.

Question 1.
Explain the causes for the success of the English in India.
Svar:
1. Lack of unity among Indian Stats:
Even though there were powerful kings and who ruled Punjab, Mysore and Maratha region, they lacked unity and fought with each other for various reasons. They failed to perceive the danger arising from the East India Company.

2. Greater Naval Power:
The British came through the sea and established a strong naval power in the Indian Ocean before coming to the Indian main land. There was no strong naval power in India to challenge the Brititsh.

3. Development of textile:
By the beginning of the 19th century English made cotton textiles successfully ousted Indian goods from their traditional markets.

4. Scientific division of labour:
The production and growth of modem science in India was encouraged by the British with a view to further colonial interests.

5. Economic prospertiy:
The British had enough funds to pay its share holders that compelled them to finance the English wars in India.

IX. Mark the following on the River map of India

Svar:

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science History From Trade to Territory Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
The rule of …………… in India became effective after the conquest of Bengal.
(a) Mughals
(b) East India Company
(c) Portuguese
(d) French
Svar:
(b) East India Company

Question 2.
Siraj – ud – daula captured the British factory at …………….
(a) Kasim bazar
(b) Delhi
(c) Alinagar
(d) Chandranagore
Svar:
(a) Kasim bazar]

Question 3.
Buxar was a small fortified town in the territory of ……………….
(a) West Bengal
(b) Karnataka
(c) Bihar
(d) Rajasthan

Question 4.
In the battle of Adayar, the French army fought under captain ……………..
(a) Hector Munro
(b) Robert Clive
(c) Eyre Coote
(d) Paradise
Svar:
(d) Paradise

Question 5.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Aix – la – Chapelle, ……………. was returned back to the English.
(a) Madras
(b) Trichinopoly
(c) Hyderabad
(d) Calcutta
Svar:
(a) Madras

Question 6.
The out break of the seven years’ was in Europe led to the ……………. war in India.
(a) I Carnatic
(b) II Carnatic
(c) III Carnatic
(d) Wandiwash
Svar:
(c) III Carnatic

Question 7.
In the III Carnatic war, France captured Fort ……………
(a) Gwalior
(b) St. David
(c) William
(d) Vellore
Svar:
(b) St. David

Question 8.
The Battle of Wandiwash was fought by the English army under General …………….
(a) Forde
(b) Dupleix
(c) Hector Munro
(d) Eyre Coote
Svar:
(d) Eyre Coote

Question 9.
The Seven year’s war was concluded …………… by the treaty of.
(a) Paris
(b) Pondicherry
(c) Madras
(d) Mangalore
Svar:
(a) Paris

Question 10.
The state of Mysore rose to prominence uder the leadership of …………….
(a) Chanda sahib
(b) Salabat Jang
(c) Haider Ali
(d) MirJafar
Svar:
(c) Haider Ali

Question 11.
In 1781, the British General Sir Eyre Coote defeated Haider Ali at ………………
(a) Hyderabad
(b) Porto Novo
(c) Mysore
(d) Mangalore
Svar:
(b) Porto Novo

Question 12.
………….. Saved the British Dominion from the wrath of powerful enemies.
(a) Wellesley
(b) Cornwallis
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) Dalhousie
Svar:
(c) Warren Hastings

Question 13.
Tipu attacked in ……………. 1789.
(a) Madras
(b) Mangalore
(c) Mahe
(d) Travancore
Svar:
(d) Travancore

Question 14.
During the course of the third Anglo – Mysore war …………… took the command of the British Armyi
(a) Cornwallis
(b) Dalhousie
(c) Robert Clive
(d) Curzon
Svar:
(a) Cornwallis

Question 15.
The internal conflict among the ……………. was best utilised by the British.
(a) Nizams
(b) Marathas
(c) Nawabs
(d) Chauhans
Svar:
(b) Marathas

Question 16.
Colonel Upton concluded the treaty of ……………. in 1776.
(a) Mangalore
(b) Mysore
(c) Purandhar
(d) Pondicherry
Svar:
(c) Purandhar

Question 17.
The death of …………….. in 1800 gave the British an added advantage.
(a) Mahadaji Scindia
(b) Daulat Rao Scindia
(c) Madhav Rao
(d) Nana Phadnavis
Svar:
(d) Nana Phadnavis]

Question 18.
In the III Anglo Maratha war, Hastings was supported by a force under General ……………
(a) Thomas Hislop
(b) Mathews
(c) Medows
(d) Upton
Svar:
(a) Thomas Hislop]

Question 19.
……………… the Governor General of India in 1786, enforced the ruler against private trade.
(a) Warren Hastings
(b) Wellesley
(c) Cornwallis
(d) Robert Clive
Svar:
(c) Cornwallis

Question 20.
As per the Government of India Act of 1858, the maximum age for competitors of civil services examination was fixed at ……………
(a) 20
(b) 23
(c) 25
(d) 21
Svar:
(b) 23

  1. ………………. of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India.
  2. ………………. ascended the throne of Bengal in 1756.
  3. British captured …………….. the French settlement in 1757.
  4. ………………. concluded two treaties with Siraj – Ud – daula and Shah Alam II.
  5. ………………. and ……………… were rival countries in Europe.
  6. The battle of ………………… was fought between the French forces and forces of Anwar – ud – din.
  7. ……………. was deputed from France to conduct the third Carnatic war.
  8. Robert Clive sent ………….. from Bengal to occupy the Norhem Circars.
  9. Haider Ali and his son …………. played a prominent role against the expansion of British empire in India.
  10. The Nizam, with the help of British troops led by General invaded Mysore in 1767.
  11. Tipu captutred Brigadier …………. the supreme commander of the forces in 1783.
  12. After the death of Narayan Rao, ……………. became the Peshwa.
  13. Raghunath Rao’s authority was challenged by a strong party at poona under ……………..
  14. ……………. made an attempt to form a coalition of Indian rulers to fight against the British.
  15. The Royal Commission on Public Service was Chaired by Lord ……………. in 1912.
  16. In 1918 ………….. and ……………. recommended that 33% of Indians should be recruited in Indian civil services.
  17. The …………….. was the second important pillar of the British administration in India.
  18. The highest rank in the army that an Indian could ever reach was that of a ……………..
  19. Circles or Thanas were headed by a …………….
  20. The heriditary village police became ……………
  1. Vasco da Gama
  2. Siraj – Ud – daula
  3. Chandra nagore
  4. Robert Clive
  5. Britain and France
  6. San Thome (Madras)
  7. Count de Lally
  8. Colonel Forde
  9. Tipu Sultan
  10. Joseph Smith
  11. Mathews
  12. Raghunath Rao
  13. Nana Phadnavis
  14. Yashwant Rao Holkas
  15. Islington
  16. Montague, Chelmsford
  17. Hær
  18. Subedar
  19. Daroga
  20. Chowkidars

Question 1.
Within a year after the Battle of Wandiwash the English army totally routed the French Army.
Svar:
Sand

Question 2.
In 1761, Tipu Sultan became the de facto ruler of Hyderabad.
Svar:
False
Correct statement:
In 1761, Tipu Sultan became the de facto ruler of Mysore.

Question 3.
Warren Hastings consolidated the British power in India. [Ans : True]
The Treaty of Salbai was signed between Cornwallis and Mahadaji Scindia.
Svar:
False
Correct statement:
The Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia.

Question 4.
The idea of competition for recruitment was introduced first by the Charter Act, 1833.
Svar:
Sand

V. Answer the following in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
What was the motive behind the discovery of sea routes to India?
Svar:
The main motive behind those discoveries was to maximize profit through trade and to establish political supremacy.

Question 2.
What were the causes of the Second Anglo Mysore war?
Svar:
1. The English did not fulfill the terms of the treaty of 1769, when Haider’s territories were attacked in 1771 by Marathas, Haider did not get help from the British.

2. British captured Mahe, a French settlement within Haider’s Jurisdiction. It led to the formation of an alliance by Haider with the Nizam and Marathas against the English in 1779.

Question 3.
Prepare flow chart to explain the period of the three Carnatic wars.
Svar:

Question 4.
What were the results of the First Anglo Maratha War?
Svar:

  1. RaghunathRao was pensioned off and MadhavRao II was accepted as the Peshwa.
  2. Salsette was given to the British.
  3. The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas.

Question 5.
Explain with a flow chart the period of the Anglo Mysore wars.
Svar:

Question 6.
Prepare a flow chart mentioning the period in which the Anglo Maratha wars were fought.
Svar:

Question 7.
What did the Indian Civil Service Act of 1861 state?
Svar:
The Indian Civil Service Act of 1861 passed by the British Parliament exclusively reserved certain categories of high executive and judicial posts for the covenanted civil service which was later designated as the Indian Civil Service.

Question 8.
Name the three Indians who became successful in the I.C.S. examination in 1869.
Svar:
In 1869, three Indians – Surendra Nath Banerje, Ramesh Chandra Dutt and Bihari Lai Gupta became successful in the I.C.S. examination.

Question 9.
What did the Royal Commission of Public Service or the Lee Commission recommend in 1923?
Svar:
In 1923, a Royal Commission on Public Services was appointed with Lord Lee of Fareham as chairman. This commission recommended that recruitment to all-Indian services like the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service should be made and controlled by the Secretary of State for India. The Lee Commission recommended the immediate establishment of a Public Service Commission.

Question 10.
Write a short note on the Act of 1935.
Svar:
The Act of 1935 also made provisions for the establishment of a Federal Public Service Commission at the Centre and the Provincial Public Service Commissions in the various provinces. Provision was also made for a Joint Public Service Commission in two or more Provinces. Although, the main aim of this measure was to serve the British interests, it became the base of the civil service system in independent India.

Question 11.
Name the provinces in which separates armies were organised during the British rule.
Svar:
During the early stage of British rule, three separate armies had been organised in three Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras.

Question 12.
Name the places where high courts were setup according to the Act of 1861.
Svar:
According to the Indian High Courts Act, 1861, three High Courts were set up in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.

Question 13.
Brief the merits of the subsidiary Alliance for the British.
Svar:
Merits for the British:

  1. The British Company maintained a large army at the expense of the Indian rulers.
  2. All Frenchmen in the service of native rulers were dismissed, and the danger of French revival was completely eliminated.
  3. The British Company began to control the foreign policy of the Princely States,
  4. Wellesley’s diplomacy made the British the paramount power in India. He transformed the British Empire in India into the British empire of India.

Question 14.
What were the factors for the success of the British?
Svar:
Factors for the success of the British

  1. Greater naval power.
  2. Development of textile.
  3. Scientific division of labour.
  4. Economic prosperity and skilful diplomacy of the British.
  5. Feelings of insecurity among the Indian merchants.
  6. The inequality and ignorance of the Indian kings.

Question 15.
What was the impact of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse in India?
Svar:
This policy led to a South Indian rebellion (1800 – 01), Vellore Rebellion (1806) and the Great Rebellion (1857).


Hector II AC-7 - History

The History of Aria

“It all started with the classical guitar”, says Shiro Arai, Chairman and the founder of Aria Guitars.

One day, a friend came to visit Shiro’s apartment with a guitar. Shiro was expecting to hear Koga-type Japanese popular music, but instead his friend started to play a piece by Bach. From this moment, he had been inspired by the sound of this instrument forever.

The very next day, Shiro bought his first guitar, costing over two months salary and began to teach himself to play. Now playing day and night, his passion for the guitar brought him to a famous classical guitar master in Nagoya, and soon became one of his students.

Shiro started work for a trading company in 1947, aged 17. In 1953, Shiro and two of his colleagues resigned their positions and founded their own trading firm. After the fledgling company failed after just one year Shiro found himself homeless with nothing but his guitar. In order to live and settle the outstanding debts from this first business he started to teach the guitar.

In 1954 unable to buy guitars, music and strings in Japan’s music stores, Shiro started to import classical guitars, Augustine guitar strings, and musical scores for himself and his students. These were the first classical guitars imported into post-war Japan and included instruments from renowned makers Jose Ramirez and Hermann Hauser. Recognising an increasing demand for guitars from friends and players throughout Japan, Shiro grasped the opportunity to start his own business. On August 2nd, 1956, ARAI & CO., INC was founded.

At this time, although demand for classical guitars and accessories were increasing, it was still comparatively low and business was supplemented with other products including woollen material.

The name, “ARIA”, which means expressive melody, was first used in 1958 when Arai exported Japanese built classical guitars fitted with steel strings to South East Asia in 1963. Also the letters of his name “ARAI” were just switched around to “ARIA as he recalled.

Shiro embarked on a tour of the US with two of the best Japanese KOHNO guitars. At that time Japanese guitars had a poor reputation for developing body cracks and warped necks after being exposed to drier conditions abroad. It was Shiro’s intention to prove how good Japanese guitars were by performing and showing to fellow guitarists, teachers and music shops. After two months these guitars also started to crack.

Even the best available Kohno guitars faced the same problem. Shiro took these cracked guitars back to Japan to show their makers just how vital it is to use properly seasoned tone woods. This trip gave Shiro the experience and knowledge to improve the quality of guitars and export Japanese guitars worldwide.

It was as early as the late 50’s when Arai started to import Fender guitars and amplifiers from the US, although at that time the Japanese market was not quite ready for the electric guitar! With the advent of rock n’ roll demand for electric guitars took-off. Arai released its first ARIA brand electric guitars in 1963. Exporting to the US followed with models including the 1532T and 1802T.

To counter the decline of the solid body electric guitar boom, Arai released the Aria Diamond series hollow body semi-acoustic guitars. Aria Diamond was named after the imitation diamond inlayed into the headstock. This series lead to the release of the 1202 and 1302 models in 1966 and caused nothing short of a sensation in Japan. From 1967 Aria added a variety of models including the solid body 1962T, R-320, and violin shaped 12-string and bass guitars, and a full acoustic guitar, the 1262.

In 1975, Aria Pro II was developed from Aria’s custom shop making high-end models for professional users. In 1976, Aria Pro II released its first original model, the PE-1500.

PE (Prototype Line) is a classic Aria design, also known as the legendary masterpiece, it featured an arched top, and all maple carved body with Aria’s original “heel-less neck and DiMarzio Super Distortion Humbucking Pickups. Primarily designed for tone and playability, the PE series has been modified to match today’s trends while keeping its original features and timeless design.

In 1978, Aria Pro II released another long-selling model, the SB-1000. The SB-1000 was highly regarded throughout the world and came to represent everything that was good about Aria and Japanese guitar building. Featuring a Canadian Ash body with neck through body and, to enhance playability, a heel-less neck. For its original tone, SB featured the Aria original BB circuit. Its exotic see-through finish and the eye position marks make the SB amongst the most distinctive basses ever made.

Aria Pro II led the way with the 80’s shift to Hard Rock and Heavy Metal. Releasing many models such as XX, ZZ and U-1. Whilst not abandoning their routes also re-established the semi-acoustic guitar models, FA and TA. The 80s, also saw the introduction of the famous IGB (SB INTEGRA) bass series.

In the early 1990s, after the heavy metal rush, Aria Pro II released one of its favourite original models, the MA series to reinforce the PE and SB line-ups. MA series bodies are constructed with innovative crystal shaped carved top and back.

Continuing its remarkable progress, Aria released the very unique concept of the SWB (electric upright bass) series to the world in 1992. The SWB range offers compact modern design and features the Fishman custom bridge Piezo pickup and active tone circuit.

Aria has been at the forefront of guitar and Japanese guitar building excellence for 60 years, which means a wealth of experience and acquired expertise. The core value remains the same today, to constantly strive to achieve a higher level of excellence, quality and value for musicians.


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