Historie Podcasts

Douglas MacArthur - Historie

Douglas MacArthur - Historie

Douglas MacArthur

1880- 1964

Amerikansk general

Den berømte amerikanske militærleder Douglas MacArthur blev født i Little Rock Arkansas den 26. januar 1880. Han fortsatte med at være et West Point og tog eksamen først i sin klasse i 1903. Han steg til rang som general under første verdenskrig. MacArthur fortsatte at blive hærchef.

I 1941, med federaliseringen af ​​den filippinske hær, blev MacArthur kommandør for den amerikanske hærs styrker i Fjernøsten.

MacArthur ledede forsvaret af Filippinerne, indtil han blev beordret til at trække sig tilbage til Australien. Han fortsatte med at kommandere amerikanske styrker i det sydvestlige Stillehav under hele krigen. Efter krigen blev MacArthur kommanderet over det besatte Japan. MacArthur havde kommando over amerikanske tropper i Korea. Hans strålende landing i Inchon snuppede sejr fra nederlag. Men hans uvillighed til at tage den kinesiske trussel alvorligt resulterede i en katastrofe i nord. Truman sluttede sin karriere, da han afskedigede ham


Douglas MacArthur (Big Chief i Det Hvide Hus)

Douglas MacArthur (26. januar 1880 - 19. august 1962) var en amerikansk præsident, general og feltmarskal i den filippinske hær. Han var stabschef for den amerikanske hær i løbet af 1930'erne og spillede en fremtrædende rolle i Stillehavsteatret under Anden Verdenskrig. Han modtog æresmedaljen for sin tjeneste i Filippinernes kampagne. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. og Douglas MacArthur var de første far og søn, der hver fik medaljen. Han er den eneste mand, der er blevet feltmarskal i den filippinske hær.

Douglas MacArthur blev opvokset som en militær brat i det amerikanske gamle vest. Han deltog i West Texas Military Academy, hvor han var valedictorian, og United States Military Academy på West Point, hvor han var første kaptajn og dimitterede toppen af ​​klassen i 1903. Under den amerikanske besættelse i 1914 af Veracruz gennemførte han en rekognosceringsmission, som han blev nomineret til Medal of Honor. I 1917 blev han forfremmet fra major til oberst og blev stabschef for den 42. (Rainbow) division. I kampene på Vestfronten under første verdenskrig steg han til brigadegeneral, blev igen nomineret til en æresmedalje og blev to gange tildelt Distinguished Service Cross samt Silver Star syv gange.

Fra 1919 til 1922 tjente MacArthur som Superintendent for U.S.Military Academy ved West Point, hvor han forsøgte en række reformer. Hans næste opgave var i Filippinerne, hvor han i 1924 var medvirkende til at dæmpe den filippinske spejdermutiny. I 1925 blev han hærens yngste generalmajor. Han tjente i brigadegeneral Billy Mitchells krigsret og var præsident for USAs olympiske komité under sommer -OL 1928 i Amsterdam. I 1930 blev han stabschef for den amerikanske hær. Som sådan var han involveret i udvisningen af ​​Bonus Army -demonstranterne fra Washington, DC, i 1932, og oprettelsen og organisationen af ​​Civil Conservation Corps. Han trak sig tilbage fra den amerikanske hær i 1937 for at blive militærrådgiver for Filippinernes Commonwealth -regering.

MacArthur blev tilbagekaldt til aktiv tjeneste i 1941 som chef for amerikanske hærstyrker i Fjernøsten. En række katastrofer fulgte, begyndende med ødelæggelsen af ​​hans luftvåben den 8. december 1941 og japanernes invasion af Filippinerne. MacArthurs styrker blev hurtigt tvunget til at trække sig tilbage til Bataan, hvor de holdt ud indtil maj 1942. I marts 1942 forlod MacArthur, hans familie og hans stab Corregidor i PT -både, og flygtede til Australien, hvor MacArthur blev øverstkommanderende i det sydvestlige Stillehavsområde. For sit forsvar af Filippinerne blev MacArthur tildelt Medal of Honor. Efter mere end to års kamp i Stillehavet opfyldte han et løfte om at vende tilbage til Filippinerne. I 1944 blev han nomineret af det republikanske parti til præsident og scorede fortsat en sejr mod den siddende præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hans formandskab var præget af begyndelsen på den kolde krig, den røde skræk og den ungarske konflikt.


Første Verdenskrig og efter

Ved starten af ​​første verdenskrig blev MacArthur forfremmet til major og tildelt det, der hovedsageligt var efterretnings- og administrative enheder. Efter at USA havde erklæret krig mod Tyskland, blev den 42. division (den såkaldte “Rainbow Division, ” en National Guard-enhed sammensat af soldater fra en række stater) oprettet, og MacArthur blev forfremmet til oberst og lægge sin kommando. I 1918 deltog han i offensiverne St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne og Sedan, hvor han gentagne gange markerede sig som en dygtig militærleder.

Da han vendte tilbage fra Europa, blev MacArthur forstander for West Point, en post han havde i de næste tre år. I løbet af denne tid blev han forfremmet til brigadegeneral for hæren og giftede sig også med sin første kone, Louise Cromwell Brooks. I resten af ​​1920'erne havde MacArthur igen forskellige militære poster og ledede også den amerikanske olympiske komité. Han blev skilt fra Louise i 1929.

I 1930 blev MacArthur forfremmet til general og valgt som hærens stabschef. I løbet af de næste par år var hans indsats primært afsat til at opretholde et militær, der ligesom resten af ​​landet blev lammet af den store depression. Han talte også ofte om, hvad han mente var kommunismens stadig mere alvorlige trussel, både i USA og i udlandet. I 1935 valgte præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt MacArthur som sin militære rådgiver for Filippinerne og sendte ham dertil for at oprette en defensiv militærstyrke. MacArthur giftede sig med sin anden kone, Jean Faircloth, i 1937, og året efter fødte hun en søn, Arthur.


Historien bag general Douglas MacArthurs legendariske Missouri-fremstillede rør

Den amerikanske general Douglas MacArthur anklagede til kaotiske kampe i anden verdenskrig bevæbnet med en smule Show-Me-ihærdighed. Sammen med sin signaturhjulshat og aviator solbriller var hans tredje must-have et majskolberør fra Missouri til strategisk pegning.

Den dag i dag er kommandantens navnebror, "MacArthur 5-Star Corn Cob Pipe", stadig et populært køb fra Missouri Meerschaum Company, en virksomhed, der drev Washington, MO. Til at blive "verdens majskolberørshovedstad."

Rørfirmaet fejrede netop sit 150 -års jubilæum i løbet af april. Fabrikken har stadig til huse i sin oprindelige, murede bygning fra 1884, der støder op til Missouri-floden.

MacArthur var en mangeårig fan af majskolberør, og han sendte faktisk foreslåede rørkonstruktionskemaer gennem sin personlige assistent, der boede i Union, til Missouri Meerschaum-virksomheden i håb om at modtage et tilpasset rør. "Da virksomhedens ansatte på det tidspunkt sendte ham den skabelse, var han glad og ville sjældent blive set på et fotografi uden det," siger Meerschaum General Manager Phil Morgan.

General MacArthur med sit rør

Dette rørs ry hjalp Missouri Meerschaum med at vinde titlen som verdens ældste og største producent af seje, sødrøgende majskolberør.

MacArthur 5-stjernet rør har et forkortet og absorberende tobakskammer, en forlænget skål og et langt skaft for at muliggøre hurtigere, bredere åbning i forhold til trærør. Det sælger i øjeblikket for $ 14,89 fra Meerschaum.

Æren for Missouris første majskolberør går til en hollandsk immigranttræarbejder ved navn Henry Tibbe, der begyndte at producere dem i 1869, efter at en landmand bad om en. I 1878 patenterede Tibbe endda sin proces. I 1907 blev H. Tibbe & amp Son Co. Missouri Meerschaum Company.

Et 5-stjernet MacArthur-rør

MacArthur var kendt for at brænde en ring omkring skaftet på hvert nyt rør, han modtog. Phil siger, at de stadig brænder en ring omkring hvert 5-stjernede rørskank til ære for generalen.

En interessant forretningsmulighed dukkede op i 1951, da Missourian og USA's præsident Harry Truman aflastede MacArthur fra tjenesten under Koreakrigen. Meerschaum Museum og Retail Shoppe Manager Rebeca Clinkinbeard siger, at hundredvis af MacArthur-hengivne belejrede virksomheden med ordrer til det ikoniske 5-stjernede rør-sådan blev MacArthurs prototype en sand arv.

Fordi generalen begyndte at rotere hans Meerschaum -rør, blev mængder sendt regelmæssigt til ham, afslører Rebeca. I et brev fra marts 1959 til Missouri Meerschaum -ejeren Carl Otto udtalte MacArthur: “ Med tiden jeg finder hvert år bringer stigende nydelse af mine majskolberør. ”

Rebeca siger, at dette originale brev stadig siver af krydret pibetobak.

I 1925 opererede en snes majskolberørvirksomheder i Missouri's Franklin County, de fleste i Washington. Men i dag står Missouri Meerschaum alene som den første og eneste overlevende del af denne levende historie.

Disse rør er røget og elsket over hele verden, for cirka 700.000 majskolberør, der sælges hvert år, siger Phil. De bruges også som souvenirs, ofte præget med bynavne, virksomheder eller mindehændelser.


Kamp født

MacArthur blev født i 1880 i Fort Dodge, Arkansas, og var bestemt til at tilbringe en stor del af sin barndom på en række hærposter i Vesten, hver mere gudforladt end den sidste.

Hans far, Arthur MacArthur, Jr., var en hærkaptajn, der havde vundet kongresmedaljen for ære i borgerkrigen og besluttede at gøre militæret til en karriere. Som ung huskede MacArthur, at han så en gruppe ulykkelige Apache -krigere skyde en salve flammende pile over væggen i det lille Fort Selden på den mexicanske grænse, hvor han "lærte at ride og skyde", før han kunne læse og skrive. Den første lyd, han nogensinde huskede at have hørt, var postbuglen, og mens andre led i denne "Gethsemane" af varme og støv og kulde og støv, spredt af storme, oversvømmelser, klapperslanger, endda Gila -monstre, blomstrede unge Douglas MacArthur.

Hans mor, Mary “Pinky” MacArthur, kom fra gamle Virginia -lager (tre af hendes brødre havde været konfødererede officerer). Hun indprentede MacArthur en stærk følelse af moralsk forpligtelse: "Vi skulle gøre det rigtige, uanset hvad det personlige offer kunne være," skrev han i sin erindringsbog længe bagefter. ”Vores land skulle altid komme først. To ting, vi aldrig må gøre - aldrig lyve, aldrig klappe. ”

På grund af sin fars militære karriere flyttede MacArthurs familie meget rundt, hvilket udsatte ham for en lang række miljøer og mennesker. MacArthurs indtræden i første klasse faldt sammen med hans fars overførsel til US Infantry and Cavalry School i Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, i 1886. Hans vilde opvækst i de vestlige ørkener havde ikke forberedt ham på formel skolegang, og for egen regning klarede han sig ikke godt i klasseværelset. Da han var ti, åbnede nye udsigter for MacArthur efter hans fars overførsel til Washington DC, hvor hans bedstefar Arthur MacArthur var en fremtrædende føderal dommer. Dette udsatte den verdslige ungdom for "glitter og pomp" i samfundet i nationens hovedstad, hvor han i overhørede voksne samtaler fik en forsmag på datidens politiske, sociale og økonomiske intriger.

Stjernespanglede generaler

Der er fem rækker for generaler i den amerikanske hær. En enkeltstjernet brigadegeneral leder i teorien en brigade. Disse er arrangeret med fire squads til en deling, der kommer fire delinger til et kompagni - fire til så mange som otte, der udgør en bataljon - flere flere af dem udgør en brigade på 4.000 til 6.000 mand. En tostjernet generalmajor befaler over en division, som består af flere brigader. En tre-stjernet generalløjtnant kommanderer et hærkorps, en fire-stjernet general i hæren kommanderer en hær bestående af flere korps, og en femstjernet general for hærene kommanderer mere end én hær, som general Douglas MacArthur gjorde i stillehavsteatret i anden verdenskrig.

En anden hæroverførsel fandt en 13-årig MacArthur på West Texas Military Academy nær Fort Sam Houston i San Antonio, hvor hans horisonter med hans egne ord blev udvidet "med et ønske om at vide, en søgen efter årsagens årsag, en søg efter sandheden. ” Han huskede disse år som de lykkeligste i sit liv, studerede Homer og Virgil på latin og oversatte Iliaden og Aeneiden, episke værker, der formidlede ham de "nervepirrende slagmarker for de store kaptajner." Akademisk hæder og medaljer kom hans vej, og han spillede sport - førstehold i fodbold og baseball. Kort sagt havde Douglas MacArthur fundet sig selv.


Indhold

MacArthur Landing -stedet ligger på en 6,78 hektar (16,8 acres) kystnære slette i Barangay i Candahug, cirka 5 kilometer syd for Leyte provinshovedstad Tacloban. [2] Det blev tidligere opkaldt Imelda Park efter den tidligere førstedame Imelda Marcos, der stammer fra Leyte -provinsen. [2] Parkens omdrejningspunkt er de syv bronzestatuer i dobbeltstørrelse på en lavvandet menneskeskabt pool, der skildrer MacArthur og hans følge under den historiske En dag Landing som fanget på det ikoniske foto af Gaetano Faillace. De var eksilpræsident Sergio Osmeña, generalløjtnant Richard Sutherland, brigadegeneral Carlos P. Romulo, generalmajor Courtney Whitney, sergent Francisco Salveron, medhjælper og ordnet til general MacArthur og CBS Radios korrespondent William J. Dunn. [3] [4] [a] Designet af billedhuggeren Anastacio Caedo og indviet under 37 -årsdagen for En dag i 1981 markerer statuerne stedet, hvor MacArthur opfyldte sit løfte om "Jeg vender tilbage"ved Red Beach, såkaldt kodenavn, som den amerikanske sjette hær har tildelt strækningen fra Marasbaras til Palo, der var udpeget som et af landingsområderne. [10] [11] Foran statuerne, to historiske markører på engelsk og filippinsk kan findes, der forklarer betydningen af ​​scenen, der skildres. Et museum står ved siden af ​​stedet, der indeholder historiske fotografier og andre memorabilia fra general MacArthur, herunder en kopi af hans tale ved landing og en bronzestøbning af hans fodspor. [12]

Palos regionale regeringscenter ligger lige overfor mindesmærket. Andre bemærkelsesværdige strukturer i nærheden omfatter Rock Garden of Peace, der blev indviet under dets 50 -års jubilæum i 1994, da mindesmærket også blev erklæret som et nationalhistorisk vartegn af National Historical Commission [13] og The Oriental Leyte. Et andet hotel, MacArthur Park Beach Resort bygget af Imelda Marcos i 1983, lå tidligere på stedet for The Oriental Leyte hotel. [14] [15] Parken er tilgængelig via Pan-Philippine Highway (AH26) fra Tacloban og Daniel Z. Romualdez lufthavn.

Den officielle historie den 20. oktober 1944 var om MacArthur, der ventede og så ombord på USS Nashville. Generalen siges at have vadet i knæ-dybe farvande, da hans håndværk grundlagdes på grund af det lave hav, sporadisk ild fra fjenden på trods af. [8] Der havde været rygter om, at landingsfotoet var blevet iscenesat, som det blev rapporteret af New York Times at Osmeña var landet på Leyte den 21. oktober, en dag efter den rapporterede MacArthur landingsdato. Der var også de tre fotografier taget i forskellige vinkler af deres landing, hvilket fremmer indtrykket af, at alt var blevet øvet. [16]

Parken er stedet for de årlige mindehistorier og genopførelse af den historiske Leyte -landing, hvor lokale og udenlandske dignitarier deltog sammen med krigsveteraner og deres familier. Den 8. november 2013 blev mindesmærket beskadiget af tyfonen Haiyan (Yolanda) (verdens stærkeste indspillede Supertyphoon) med en af ​​sine syv statuer, Carlos Romulo -statuen, banket fra basen. [12] Det blev straks repareret af regeringen, og statuen af ​​Carlos P. Romulo blev restaureret inden for tyve dage med bistand fra Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. [17]


Indhold

Den 26. juli 1941 føderaliserede Roosevelt den filippinske hær, tilbagekaldte MacArthur til aktiv tjeneste i den amerikanske hær som en tostjerne/generalmajor og kaldte ham kommandør for amerikanske hærstyrker i Fjernøsten (USAFFE). MacArthur blev forfremmet til generalløjtnant den følgende dag, [1] og derefter til general den 20. december. Samtidig blev Sutherland forfremmet til generalmajor, mens Marshall, Spencer B. Akin og Hugh John Casey alle blev forfremmet til brigadegeneral generel. [2] Den 31. juli 1941 havde den filippinske afdeling tildelt 22.000 tropper, heraf 12.000 filippinske spejdere. Hovedkomponenten var den filippinske division, under kommando af generalmajor Jonathan M. Wainwright. [3] Mellem juli og december 1941 modtog garnisonen 8.500 forstærkninger. [4] Efter mange års parsimonium blev der afsendt meget udstyr. I november havde en efterslæb på 1.100.000 forsendelsesmængder udstyr beregnet til Filippinerne akkumuleret sig i amerikanske havne og depoter, der venter på skibe. [5]

Kl. 0330 lokal tid den 8. december 1941 fik Sutherland at vide om angrebet på Pearl Harbor og informerede MacArthur. I 0530 beordrede stabschefen for den amerikanske hærs general George Marshall MacArthur til at udføre den eksisterende krigsplan, Rainbow Five. MacArthur gjorde ingenting. Da general Breteron ved tre lejligheder anmodede om tilladelse til at angribe japanske baser i Formosa (nu kaldet Taiwan) i overensstemmelse med hensigterne før krigen, blev han afvist. Kl. 12:30 opnåede de japanske piloter fra den 11. luftflåde fuldstændig taktisk overraskelse, da de angreb Clark Field og den nærliggende jagerbase på Iba Field. De ødelagde eller deaktiverede 18 af Far East Air Force's 35 B-17'er, 53 af dets 107 P-40'er, tre P-35'er og mere end 25 andre fly. Der blev foretaget betydelig skade på baserne, og ofre i alt 80 dræbte og 150 sårede. [6] Det, der var tilbage af Far East Air Force, blev næsten ødelagt i løbet af de næste par dage. [7]

Forsvarsplaner før krigen antog, at japanerne ikke kunne forhindres i at lande på Luzon og opfordrede amerikanske og filippinske styrker til at opgive Manila og trække sig tilbage med deres forsyninger til Bataan -halvøen. MacArthur forsøgte at bremse det japanske fremskridt med et indledende forsvar mod de japanske landinger. Imidlertid genovervejede han sin tillid til sine filippinske troppers evne, da den japanske landingsstyrke gjorde et hurtigt fremskridt efter landing ved Lingayen -bugten den 21. december. [8] Han beordrede efterfølgende et tilbagetog til Bataan. [9] Manila blev erklæret for en åben by, og den 25. december flyttede MacArthur sit hovedkvarter til øfæstningen Corregidor i Manila Bay. [10] En række luftangreb fra japanerne ødelagde alle de udsatte strukturer på øen, og USAFFEs hovedkvarter blev flyttet ind i Malinta -tunnelen. I det første luftangreb nogensinde på Corregidor den 29. december bombede japanske fly alle bygninger på Topside inklusive MacArthurs hus og kasernen. MacArthurs familie løb ind i luftangrebshjemmet, mens MacArthur gik udenfor til husets have med nogle soldater for at observere og tælle antallet af bombefly, der var involveret i razziaen, da bomber ødelagde hjemmet. En bombe ramte kun ti meter fra MacArthur, og soldaterne afskærmede ham med deres kroppe og hjelme. Den filippinske sergent Domingo Adversario blev tildelt sølvstjernen og lilla hjerte for at have fået sin hånd såret af bomben og dækket MacArthurs hoved med sin egen hjelm, som også blev ramt af granatsplinter. MacArthur blev ikke såret. [11] [12] [13] Senere flyttede det meste af hovedkvarteret til Bataan og efterlod kun kernen hos MacArthur. [14] Tropperne på Bataan vidste, at de var blevet afskrevet, men fortsatte med at kæmpe. Nogle bebrejdede Roosevelt og MacArthur for deres knibe. En ballade sunget i melodien af ​​"The Battle Hymn of the Republic" kaldte ham "Dugout Doug." [15] De fleste hang dog fast i troen på, at MacArthur på en eller anden måde "ville række ned og trække noget ud af hatten." [16]

Den 1. januar 1942 blev MacArthur tilbudt og accepteret en betaling på $ 500.000 ($ 8,8 millioner i nutidsværdi) fra præsident Quezon i Filippinerne som betaling for hans førkrigstjeneste. MacArthurs medarbejdere modtog også betalinger: $ 75.000 for Sutherland, $ 45.000 for Richard Marshall og $ 20.000 for Huff. [17] [18] Eisenhower blev efter at have været udnævnt til øverstkommanderende allieret ekspeditionsstyrke også tilbudt penge af Quezon, men afslog. [19] Disse betalinger kendte kun få i Manila og Washington, herunder præsident Roosevelt og krigsminister Henry L. Stimson, indtil de blev offentliggjort af historikeren Carol Petillo i 1979. [20] [21] Mens betalingerne havde været fuldt lovlig, [21] afslørede åbenbaringen MacArthurs ry. [21] [22]

Escape to Australia and Medal of Honor citation Edit

I februar 1942, da japanske styrker strammede grebet om Filippinerne, blev MacArthur beordret af præsident Roosevelt til at flytte til Australien. MacArthur diskuterede ideen med sine medarbejdere om, at han fratrådte sin kommission og kæmpede videre som en privat soldat i den filippinske modstand, men Sutherland talte ham ud af det. [23] Om natten den 12. marts 1942 forlod MacArthur og en udvalgt gruppe (der omfattede hans kone Jean og sønnen Arthur samt Sutherland, Akin, Casey, Marshall, Willoughby, Diller og George) Corregidor i fire PT både. MacArthur, hans familie og Sutherland rejste ind PT 41, under kommando af løjtnant John D. Bulkeley. De andre fulgte med PT 34, PT 35 og PT 32. MacArthur og hans parti nåede Del Monte Airfield i Bukidnon -provinsen på øen Mindanao to dage senere. General George Marshall sendte tre amerikanske B-17'er for at hente dem. To af dem ankom og bragte hele gruppen til Australien. [24] [25]

MacArthur ankom den 17. marts til Batchelor Airfield, cirka 97 km syd for Darwin, inden han fløj til Alice Springs, hvor han tog Ghanen gennem den australske outback til Adelaide. Hans berømte tale, hvor han sagde: "Jeg kom ud af Bataan, og jeg vender tilbage", blev først holdt i Terowie, en lille jernbaneby i Syd Australien i 20. marts. Da han ankom til Adelaide, forkortede MacArthur dette til nu -berømt, "jeg kom igennem, og jeg vender tilbage", der skabte overskrifter. [26] Washington bad MacArthur om at ændre sit løfte til "Vi vender tilbage". Han ignorerede anmodningen. [27] Bataan overgav sig til sidst den 9. april, [28] og Wainwright overgav sig på Corregidor den 6. maj [29]

For sit lederskab i forsvaret af Filippinerne besluttede general Marshall at tildele MacArthur æresmedaljen, den dekoration, som han to gange tidligere var blevet nomineret til. Det blev indrømmet, at MacArthur faktisk ikke havde udført tapperhed i kamp på Bataan, men prisen fra 1927 til Charles Lindbergh skabte en præcedens. MacArthur valgte at tage imod medaljen på grundlag af, at "denne pris ikke var tiltænkt mig så meget personligt som en anerkendelse af den galante hærs ukuelige mod, som det var min ære at kommandere over." [30] Arthur MacArthur, Jr. og Douglas MacArthur blev således den første far og søn, der blev tildelt æresmedaljen. De forblev det eneste par indtil 2001, da Theodore Roosevelt blev tildelt posthumt for sin tjeneste under den spansk -amerikanske krig, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. efter at have modtaget en posthumt for sin tjeneste under Anden Verdenskrig. [31]

Generelt hovedkvarter Rediger

Den 18. april 1942 blev MacArthur udnævnt til øverstkommanderende for de allierede styrker i det sydvestlige Stillehavsområde (SWPA). Generalløjtnant George Brett blev kommandør, allierede luftstyrker og viceadmiral Herbert F. Leary blev kommandør, allierede flådestyrker (selvom ingen af ​​disse mænd var af MacArthurs valg). [32] Da hovedparten af ​​landstyrkerne i teatret var australske, insisterede general Marshall på, at en australier blev udnævnt til kommandør, allierede landstyrker, og jobbet gik til general Sir Thomas Blamey. Selvom MacArthurs kommando hovedsageligt var australsk og amerikansk, omfattede den også et lille antal medarbejdere fra Hollandsk Ostindien, Storbritannien og andre lande. [33] MacArthur etablerede et tæt forhold til Australiens premierminister, John Curtin, [34] selvom mange australiere ærgrede MacArthur som en udenlandsk general, der var blevet pålagt dem. [35]

Personalet i MacArthurs generelle hovedkvarter (GHQ) blev bygget omkring kernen, der var flygtet fra Filippinerne med ham, der blev kendt som "Bataan -banden". [36] Selvom Roosevelt og general Marshall pressede på for at blive tildelt hollandske og australske officerer til GHQ, var cheferne for alle personaledivisionerne amerikanske og sådanne officerer af andre nationaliteter, som blev tildelt tjent under dem. [33] Oprindeligt placeret i Melbourne, [37] blev GHQ flyttet til Brisbane i juli, fordi Brisbane var den nordligste by i Australien med de nødvendige kommunikationsfaciliteter. [38] GHQ besatte bygningen Australian Mutual Provident Society (omdøbt efter krigen til MacArthur Chambers). MacArthurs kontor og Willoughbys G-2-afdeling var placeret på 8. etage (nu MacArthur Museum), mens andre personaleafsnit besatte de fire etager herunder. [39]

MacArthur dannede sin egen signal intelligens organisation, kendt som Central Bureau, fra australske efterretningsenheder og amerikanske kryptanalytikere, der var flygtet fra Filippinerne [40] denne enhed videresendte Ultra information til Willoughby til analyse. [41] Efter en pressemeddelelse afslørede detaljer om den japanske flådekoncentration i Rabaul under slaget ved Koralhavet, [42] beordrede præsident Roosevelt, at der skulle indføres censur i Australien. Det rådgivende krigsråd gav efterfølgende censurmyndighed til GHQ over den australske presse. Australske aviser var fremover begrænset til det, der blev rapporteret i den daglige GHQ -meddelelse. [42] [43] Veterankorrespondenter betragtede dem som "en total farce" og karakteriserede dem som "Alice-in-Wonderland-oplysninger udleveret på højt niveau." [44]

Papuansk kampagne Rediger

Forventet at japanerne ville slå til i Port Moresby igen, blev garnisonen styrket, og MacArthur beordrede etablering af nye baser i Merauke og Milne Bay for at dække dens flanker. [45] Slaget ved Midway i juni 1942 førte til planer om at udnytte denne sejr med en begrænset offensiv i Stillehavet. MacArthurs forslag om et angreb på den japanske hovedbase i Rabaul mødtes med indvendinger fra den amerikanske flåde, som favoriserede en mindre ambitiøs tilgang og protesterede mod, at en hærgeneral havde kommandoen over, hvad der ville være en amfibieoperation. Det resulterende kompromis krævede et tre-trins fremskridt, med det første, beslaglæggelsen af ​​Tulagi-området, der blev udført af kommandoen i Stillehavet, under admiral Chester W. Nimitz. De senere faser ville blive udført under MacArthurs kommando som øverste allierede kommandør, det sydvestlige Stillehavsområde. [46]

Japanerne slog først og landede ved Buna i juli [47] og ved Milne Bay i august. Australierne besejrede snart japanerne i Milne Bay, [48], men en række nederlag i Kokoda Track -kampagnen havde en deprimerende effekt tilbage i Australien. Den 30. august udsendte MacArthur Washington, at medmindre der blev truffet handling, ville New Guinea Force blive overvældet. [49] Efter at have begået alle de tilgængelige australske tropper besluttede MacArthur at sende amerikanske tropper. Den 32. infanteridivision, en dårligt uddannet division i National Guard, blev udvalgt til at udføre en flankerende manøvre. [50] En række pinlige amerikanske vendinger i slaget ved Buna-Gona førte til åbenlyst kritik af de amerikanske tropper af Blamey og andre australiere. MacArthur sendte generalløjtnant Robert L. Eichelberger for at "tage Buna, eller ikke komme tilbage i live." [51] [52] MacArthur flyttede den avancerede del af GHQ til Port Moresby den 6. november 1942. [53] Buna faldt endelig 3. januar 1943. [54] MacArthur tildelte Distinguished Service Cross til tolv officerer for "præcis henrettelse af operationer. " Denne brug af landets næsthøjeste pris vakte en vis harme, for mens nogle, ligesom Eichelberger og generalmajor George Alan Vasey, havde kæmpet i feltet, havde andre, som Sutherland og Willoughby, ikke gjort det. [55] For sin del blev MacArthur tildelt sin tredje Distinguished Service Medal, [56] og den australske regering gjorde ham til et æresridder Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. [57]

MacArthur havde ringe tillid til Bretts evner som chef for Allied Air Forces SWPA, [32] [58] [59] og valgte i august 1942 generalmajor George C. Kenney til at erstatte ham. [60] [61] Kenneys anvendelse af luftmagt til støtte for Blameys grundstyrker ville snart vise sig kritisk for Blameys sejr i slaget ved Wau. [62] I september 1942 blev viceadmiral Leary erstattet af viceadmiral Arthur S. Carpender som chef for Allied Naval Forces SWPA. [63] På det tidspunkt var MacArthurs søværdier (almindeligvis omtalt som MacArthur's Navy) bestod af kun 5 krydsere, 8 destroyere, 20 ubåde og 7 små fartøjer. [63] Denne flåde blev den syvende flåde den 15. marts 1943 forud for Operation Cartwheel. [64]

Operation Cartwheel Edit

På Pacific Military Conference i marts 1943 godkendte de fælles stabschefer general MacArthurs plan for Operation Cartwheel, et fremskridt på Rabaul. På grund af mangel på ressourcer, især tunge bombefly, blev planens sidste fase, erobringen af ​​selve Rabaul, udskudt til 1944. [65] MacArthur forklarede sin strategi:

Min strategiske opfattelse for Stillehavsteatret, som jeg skitserede efter Papuan-kampagnen og siden konsekvent har været fortaler for, overvejer massive slag mod kun hovedstrategiske mål ved at udnytte overraskelse og luft-jorden slagkraft understøttet og assisteret af flåden. Dette er det modsatte af det, der kaldes "øhopping", hvilket er fjendens gradvise tilbagestrømning ved direkte frontaltryk med de deraf følgende store tab, som helt sikkert vil blive involveret. Nøglepunkter skal naturligvis tages, men et klogt valg af sådanne vil undgå behovet for at storme massen af ​​øer, der nu er i fjendens besiddelse. "Øhopping" med ekstravagante tab og langsom fremgang. er ikke min idé om, hvordan krigen skal afslutte så hurtigt og så billigt som muligt. Nye betingelser kræver løsning og nye våben kræver for maksimal anvendelse nye og fantasifulde metoder. Krige er aldrig vundet i fortiden. [66]

Generalløjtnant Walter Kruegers sjette hærs hovedkvarter ankom til SWPA i begyndelsen af ​​1943, men MacArthur havde kun tre amerikanske divisioner, og de var trætte og udtømte fra kampene ved Buna og Guadalcanal. Som et resultat "blev det indlysende, at enhver militær offensiv i det sydvestlige Stillehav i 1943 hovedsageligt skulle udføres af den australske hær." [67]

I New Guinea, et land uden veje, skal transport af mænd og materiel i stor skala skulle udføres med fly eller skibe. En flerstrenget tilgang blev anvendt til at løse dette problem. Demonterede landingsfartøjer blev sendt til Australien, hvor de blev samlet i Cairns. [68] Rækkevidden af ​​disse små landingsfartøjer skulle udvides kraftigt af landingsskibene fra kontreadmiral Daniel E. Barbeys VII Amphibious Force, som begyndte at ankomme i slutningen af ​​1942. [69] Barbeys styrke var en del af Carpenders nyoprettede syvende flåde . [63] [69] Carpender rapporterede til MacArthur som Supreme Allied Commander, SWPA, men til admiral Ernest King som Commander Seventh Fleet, som var en del af Kings United States Fleet. [70] Since the Seventh Fleet had no aircraft carriers, the range of naval operations SWPA was limited by that of the fighter aircraft of the Fifth Air Force. Although a few long-range P-38 Lightning fighters had arrived in SWPA in late 1942, further deliveries were suspended owing to the demands of Operation Torch. [71]

The main offensive began with the landing at Lae by Major General George Wootten's Australian 9th Division and the 2nd Engineer Special Brigade on September 4, 1943. The next day MacArthur watched the landing at Nadzab by paratroops of the 503rd Parachute Infantry from a B-17 circling overhead. The B-17 made the trip on three engines because one failed soon after leaving Port Moresby, but MacArthur insisted that it fly on to Nadzab. [72] For this, MacArthur was awarded the Air Medal. [73]

Vasey's Australian 7th Division and Wooten's 9th Division converged on Lae, which fell on September 16. MacArthur advanced his timetable, and ordered the 7th Division to capture Kaiapit and Dumpu, while the 9th Division mounted an amphibious assault on Finschhafen. Here, the offensive bogged down. Part of the problem was that MacArthur had based his decision to assault Finschhafen on Willoughby's assessment that there were only 350 Japanese defenders at Finschhafen when there were actually nearly 5,000. A furious battle ensued. [74]

In early November, MacArthur's plan for a westward advance along the coast of New Guinea to the Philippines was incorporated into plans for the war against Japan approved at the Cairo Conference. [75] [76] Three months later, airmen reported no signs of enemy activity in the Admiralty Islands. Although his intelligence staff did not agree that the islands had been evacuated, MacArthur ordered an amphibious landing on Los Negros Island, marking the beginning of the Admiralty Islands campaign. MacArthur accompanied the assault force aboard USS Phoenix, the flagship of Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, who had recently replaced Carpender as commander of the Seventh Fleet. MacArthur, who came ashore with Kinkaid only seven hours after the first wave of landing craft, was awarded the Bronze Star for his actions in this campaign. [77] After six weeks of fierce fighting, the 1st Cavalry Division captured the islands the campaign officially ended on 18 May 1944. [78]

MacArthur now bypassed the Japanese forces at Hansa Bay and Wewak, and assaulted Hollandia and Aitape, which Willoughby reported to be lightly defended. Although they were out of range of the Fifth Air Force's fighters based in the Ramu Valley, the timing of the operation allowed the aircraft carriers of the Pacific Fleet to provide air support. [79] Though risky, the operation turned out to be a brilliant success. MacArthur caught the Japanese off balance and cut off Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi's Japanese XVIII Army in the Wewak area. Because the Japanese were not expecting an attack, the garrison was weak, and Allied casualties were correspondingly light. However, the terrain turned out to be less suitable for airbase development than first thought, forcing MacArthur to seek better locations further west. Moreover, while bypassing Japanese forces had great tactical merit, it had the serious strategic drawback of tying up large numbers of Allied troops in order to contain them, and Adachi was far from beaten. In the Battle of Driniumor River, he would bring on "the New Guinea campaign's bloodiest and most strategically useless battle." [80]

Leyte Edit

In July 1944, President Roosevelt summoned MacArthur to meet with him in Hawaii "to determine the phase of action against Japan." Nimitz and MacArthur agreed that the next step should be to advance on the southern and central Philippines. MacArthur emphasized the moral and political issues involved in a decision to liberate or bypass Luzon. He also spoke briefly of his plan to use the Australian Army to liberate Indonesia. Although the issue was not settled, both Roosevelt and Leahy were convinced of the soundness of MacArthur's plan. [81] In September, Halsey's carriers made a series of air strikes on the Philippines. Opposition was feeble and Halsey concluded that Leyte was "wide open" and possibly undefended, and recommended that projected operations be skipped in favor of an assault on Leyte. [82]

On October 20, 1944, troops of Krueger's Sixth Army landed on Leyte, while MacArthur watched from USS Nashville. That afternoon he arrived off the beach. The advance had not progressed far snipers were still active and the area was under sporadic mortar fire. When his whaleboat grounded in knee-deep water, MacArthur requested a landing craft, but the beachmaster was too busy to grant his request. MacArthur was compelled to wade ashore. [83] [84] In his prepared speech he said:

People of the Philippines: I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil — soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people. [85]

Since Leyte was out of range of Kenney's land-based aircraft, MacArthur was entirely dependent on carrier aircraft for cover. [86] Japanese air activity soon increased, with raids on Tacloban, where MacArthur decided to establish his headquarters, and on the fleet offshore. MacArthur enjoyed staying on Nashville ' s bridge during air raids, although several bombs landed close by, and two nearby cruisers were hit. [87] Over the next few days, the Imperial Japanese Navy staged a major counterattack in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. MacArthur attributed the near-disaster to command being divided between himself and Nimitz. [88] Nor did the campaign ashore proceed smoothly. The timing of the assault so late in the year forced the combat troops, pilots, and the supporting logistical units to contend with heavy monsoonal rains that disrupted the airbase construction program. Adverse weather and valiant Japanese resistance slowed the American advance ashore. MacArthur was forced to ask Nimitz to recall the carriers to support the Sixth Army but they proved to be no substitute for land-based aircraft, and the lack of air cover permitted the Japanese Army to pour troops into Leyte. [89] [90] By the end of December, Krueger's headquarters estimated that 5,000 Japanese remained on Leyte, and on December 26 MacArthur issued a communiqué announcing that "the campaign can now be regarded as closed except for minor mopping up." Yet Eichelberger's Eighth Army would kill more than 27,000 Japanese on Leyte between then and the end of the campaign in May 1945. [91] On December 18, 1944, MacArthur was promoted to the new five-star rank of General of the Army — one day before Nimitz was promoted to Fleet Admiral, also a five-star rank. [92] MacArthur had a Filipino silversmith make the rank badges from American, Australian, Dutch and Filipino coins. [93]

Luzon Edit

MacArthur's next move was the invasion of Mindoro, where there were good potential airfield sites around the San Jose area. Willoughby estimated, correctly as it turned out, that the island had only about 1,000 Japanese defenders. The problem this time was getting there. A parachute drop was considered, but the airfields on Leyte lacked the space to hold the required transport aircraft. Kinkaid balked at sending escort carriers into the restricted waters of the Sulu Sea, and Kenney could not guarantee land based air cover. The operation was clearly hazardous, and MacArthur's staff talked him out of accompanying the invasion on the Nashville. As the invasion force entered the Sulu Sea, a kamikaze struck Nashville, killing 133 people and wounding 190 more, including the task force commander, Brigadier General William C. Dunkel. The landings were made unopposed on December 15, 1944, and within two weeks Australian and American engineers had three airstrips in operation, but "not since Anzio had the navy experienced so much difficulty supporting an amphibious operation after the initial landing." The resupply convoys were repeatedly attacked by kamikaze aircraft and on December 26–27 a Japanese naval force attacked the area, sinking a destroyer and damaging other ships. [94]

The way was now clear for the invasion of Luzon. This time, based on different interpretations of the same intelligence data, Willoughby's G-2 Section at GHQ estimated the strength of General Tomoyuki Yamashita's forces on Luzon at 137,000, while that of Sixth Army estimated it at 234,000. The Sixth Army Brigadier General Clyde D. Eddleman attempted to lay out the reasons for the Sixth Army's assessment, but MacArthur's response was "Bunk!". He felt that even Willoughby's estimate was too high. "Audacity, calculated risk, and a clear strategic aim were MacArthur's attributes," and he was prepared to disregard the intelligence estimates. However, all the estimates were too low: Yamashita had more than 287,000 troops on Luzon. [95] This time MacArthur traveled on the USS Boise, watching as the ship was near-missed by a bomb and torpedoes fired by midget submarines. [96] The GHQ communiqué read: "The decisive battle for the liberation of the Philippines and the control of the Southwest pacific is at hand. General MacArthur is in personal command at the front and landed with his assault troops." [97]

MacArthur's primary concern was the capture of the port of Manila and the airbase at Clark Field, which were required to support future operations. He urged his front line commanders on. [98] On January 25, 1945 he moved his advanced headquarters forward to Hacienda Luisita, closer to the front than Krueger's at Calasiao. [99] On January 30, MacArthur ordered the 1st Cavalry Division's commander, Major General Verne D. Mudge, to conduct a rapid advance on Manila. On February 3, it reached the northern outskirts of Manila and the campus of the University of Santo Tomas where 3,700 internees were liberated. [100] Unknown to the Americans, Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi had decided to defend Manila to the death. The Battle of Manila raged for the next three weeks. [101] In order to spare the civilian population, MacArthur prohibited the use of air strikes, but thousands of civilians died in the crossfire or Japanese massacres. [102] He also refused to restrict the traffic of civilians who clogged the roads in and out of Manila, placing humanitarian concerns above military ones except for emergencies. [103] Most of MacArthur's 8,000-volume military library, which included books inherited from his father, was lost. [104] Nonetheless, he continued his habit of reading military history and biography until his death. [105] For his part in the capture of Manila, MacArthur was awarded his third Distinguished Service Cross. [106]

Southern Philippines Edit

Although MacArthur had no specific directive from the Joint Chiefs to do so, and the fighting on Luzon was far from over, he committed the Eighth Army, Seventh Fleet and Thirteenth Air Force to a series of operations to liberate the remainder of the Philippines from the Japanese. A series of 52 amphibious landings were made in the central and southern Philippines between February and July 1945. [107] In the GHQ communiqué on July 5, MacArthur announced that the Philippines had now been liberated and all operations ended, although Yamashita still held out in northern Luzon. [108] Starting in May 1945, MacArthur used his Australian troops in the invasion of Borneo. MacArthur accompanied the assault on Labuan on USS Boise, and visited the troops ashore, along with Lieutenant General Sir Leslie Morshead and Air Vice Marshal William Bostock. En route back to his headquarters in Manila, he visited Davao, where he told Eichelberger that no more than 4,000 Japanese remained alive on Mindanao. A few months later, six times that number would surrender. In July 1945, he set out on Boise once more to be with the Australian 7th Division for the landing at Balikpapan. [109] MacArthur was awarded his fourth Distinguished Service Medal. [110]


Field marshall

In 1935, MacArthur suffered a very difficult loss when his mother died. Two years later, in 1937, he wed Jean Marie Faircloth. This second marriage endured and the couple had one son, Arthur MacArthur III. Also in 1937, MacArthur retired from the U.S. Army. His old friend Manuel Quezon (1878–1944), then president of the Philippines, had asked him to serve as a military adviser. He became a field marshall in the Philippine army, with an assistant appointed by the U.S. Army, a young major named Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969 see entry). (The United States at this point in Philippine history was in charge of the island nation's defense and so could make such appointments.)


Talk about a no-risk area

If you do find yourself in this volatile area, first you’ll have to give up your cell phone, as their signals could accidentally set off sensitive explosives. After all, the risks here are no joke, and they’re not taking any risks.

Inside, you’ll find 86 facilities. They are all neatly in a line and aptly named Long Row. The structures are built beside one another, but they don’t touch. Long Row was specifically designed for extra security, just in case there is a problem. For instance, if a bomb exploded in one of the buildings, the building beside it won’t sympathetically detonate.


Gen. Douglas MacArthur

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964) was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign. Arthur MacArthur, Jr., and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to each be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of general of the army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.

Douglas MacArthur was raised as a military brat in the American Old West. He attended the West Texas Military Academy, where he was valedictorian, and the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he was First Captain and graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz he conducted a reconnaissance mission, for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917, he was promoted from major to colonel and became chief of staff of the 42nd (Rainbow) Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for a Medal of Honor, and was twice awarded the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Silver Star seven times.

From 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted a series of reforms. His next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling the Philippine Scout Mutiny. In 1925, he became the Army's youngest major general. He served on the court martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the United States Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930 he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As such, he was involved with the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D.C., in 1932, and the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the U.S. Army in 1937 to become Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines.

MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of U.S. Army Forces Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air force on December 8, 1941, and the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left Corregidor Island in PT boats, and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled a promise to return to the Philippines. He officially accepted Japan's surrender on September 2, 1945, and oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. As the Supreme Commander Allied Powers (effective ruler) of Japan, he oversaw sweeping economic, political and social changes. He led the United Nations Command in the Korean War from 1950 to 1951. On April 11, 1951, MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman. He later became Chairman of the Board of Remington Rand.

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur,GCB[1] (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964), was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II, receiving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines and on the Bataan Peninsula. He was designated to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945, and when that was no longer necessary he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945.

MacArthur oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951 and is credited for implementing far-ranging democratic changes. He led the United Nations Command forces defending South Korea in 1950� against North Korea's invasion. MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman in April 1951 for publicly disagreeing with Truman's Korean War Policy.[2]

MacArthur is credited with the military dictum, "In war, there is no substitute for victory" but he also warned, "The soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war." He fought in three major wars (World War I, World War II, Korean War) and was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army.

After being raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason, Douglas MacArthur affiliated with Manila Lodge No.1 and on March 13th joined the Scottish Rite. On October 19, 1937, he was elected Knight Commander Court of Honor, and on December 8, 1947, he was coroneted Honorary 33rd Degree at the American Embassy in Tokyo. He became a life member of the Nile Shrine Temple in Seattle, Washington.

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur

Bornद January 1880 Little Rock Barracks, Little Rock, Arkansas Died• April 1964 (aged 84) Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C. Buried at MacArthur Memorial, Norfolk, Virginia Service/branch United States Army

Years of service򑤃� Rank US-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army (U.S. Army) Field Marshal (Philippine Army) Service number O-57 Commands held United Nations Command Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers Southwest Pacific Area

Awards Medal of Honor Distinguished Service Cross (3) Army Distinguished Service Medal (5) Navy Distinguished Service Medal Silver Star (7) Distinguished Flying Cross Bronze Star Air Medal Purple Heart (2)

Spouse(s) Louise Cromwell Brooks (m. 1922 divorce 1929) Jean Marie Faircloth (m. 1937 his death 1964)

Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.

Raised in a military family in the American Old West, MacArthur was valedictorian at the West Texas Military Academy, and First Captain at the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz, he conducted a reconnaissance mission, for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917, he was promoted from major to colonel and became chief of staff of the 42nd (Rainbow) Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I, he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for a Medal of Honor, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross twice and the Silver Star seven times.

From 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted a series of reforms. His next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling the Philippine Scout Mutiny. In 1925, he became the Army's youngest major general. He served on the court martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the American Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930, he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As such, he was involved in the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D.C. in 1932, and the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the US Army in 1937 to become Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines.

MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air forces on 8 December 1941, and the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. Upon his arrival in Australia, MacArthur gave a speech in which he famously promised "I shall return" to the Philippines. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled a promise to return to the Philippines. He officially accepted Japan's surrender on 2 September 1945, aboard USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay, and oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. As the effective ruler of Japan, he oversaw sweeping economic, political and social changes. He led the United Nations Command in the Korean War until he was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman on 11 April 1951. He later became Chairman of the Board of Remington Rand.

Early life and education A military brat, Douglas MacArthur was born 26 January 1880, at Little Rock Barracks, Little Rock, Arkansas, to Arthur MacArthur, Jr., a U.S. Army captain, and his wife, Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur (nicknamed "Pinky"). Arthur, Jr. was the son of Scottish-born jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur, Sr., Arthur would later receive the Medal of Honor for his actions with the Union Army in the Battle of Missionary Ridge during the American Civil War, and be promoted to the rank of lieutenant general. Pinkney came from a prominent Norfolk, Virginia, family. Two of her brothers had fought for the South in the Civil War, and refused to attend her wedding.

MacArthur entered West Point on 13 June 1899, and his mother also moved there to a suite at Craney's Hotel, overlooking the grounds of the Academy. Hazing was widespread at West Point at this time, and MacArthur and his classmate Ulysses S. Grant III were singled out for special attention by southern cadets as sons of generals with mothers living at Craney's.

Junior officer MacArthur spent his graduation furlough with his parents at Fort Mason, California, where his father, now a major general, was serving as commander of the Department of the Pacific.

World War I Rainbow Division MacArthur was promoted to brigadier general on 26 June. In late June, the 42nd Division was shifted to Châlons-en-Champagne to oppose the impending German Champagne-Marne Offensive. Général d'Armພ Henri Gouraud of the French Fourth Army elected to meet the attack with a defense in depth, holding the front line area as thinly as possible and meeting the German attack on his second line of defense. His plan succeeded, and MacArthur was awarded a second Silver Star.The 42nd Division participated in the subsequent Allied counter-offensive, and MacArthur was awarded a third Silver Star on 29 July. Two days later, Menoher relieved Brigadier General Robert A. Brown of the 84th Infantry Brigade of his command, and replaced him with MacArthur.

Superintendent of the United States Military Academy In 1919, MacArthur became Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, which Chief of Staff Peyton March felt had become out of date in many respects and was much in need of reform. Accepting the post allowed MacArthur to retain his rank of brigadier general, instead of being reduced to his substantive rank of major like many of his contemporaries. When MacArthur moved into the superintendent's house with his mother in June 1919, he became the youngest superintendent since Sylvanus Thayer in 1817.

Army's youngest major general

MacArthur became romantically involved with socialite and multi-millionaire heiress Louise Cromwell Brooks. They were married at her family's villa in Palm Beach, Florida on 14 February 1922. Rumors circulated that General Pershing, who had also courted Louise, had threatened to exile them to the Philippines if they were married. This was denied by Pershing as "all damn poppycock." In October 1922, MacArthur left West Point and sailed to the Philippines with Louise and her two children, Walter and Louise, to assume command of the Military District of Manila MacArthur was fond of the children, and spent much of his free time with them.

Chief of Staff By 1930, MacArthur was still, at age 50, the youngest of the U.S. Army's major generals, and the best known. He left the Philippines on 19 September 1930 and for a brief time was in command of the IX Corps Area in San Francisco.

In 1934, MacArthur sued journalists Drew Pearson and Robert S. Allen for defamation after they described his treatment of the Bonus marchers as "unwarranted, unnecessary, insubordinate, harsh and brutal".[96] In turn, they threatened to call Isabel Rosario Cooper as a witness. MacArthur had met Isabel, a Eurasian woman, while in the Philippines, and she had become his mistress. MacArthur was forced to settle out of court, secretly paying Pearson $15,000.

Field Marshal of the Philippine Army When the Commonwealth of the Philippines achieved semi-independent status in 1935, President of the Philippines Manuel Quezon asked MacArthur to supervise the creation of a Philippine Army. Quezon and MacArthur had been personal friends since the latter's father had been Governor-General of the Philippines, 35 years earlier. With President Roosevelt's approval, MacArthur accepted the assignment.

MacArthur married Jean Faircloth in a civil ceremony on 30 April 1937. Their marriage produced a son, Arthur MacArthur IV, who was born in Manila on 21 February 1938. On 31 December 1937, MacArthur officially retired from the Army. He ceased to represent the U.S. as military adviser to the government, but remained as Quezon's adviser in a civilian capacity. Eisenhower returned to the U.S., and was replaced as MacArthur's chief of staff by Lieutenant Colonel Richard K. Sutherland, while Richard J. Marshall became deputy chief of staff.

In February 1942, as Japanese forces tightened their grip on the Philippines, MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to relocate to Australia. On the night of 12 March 1942, MacArthur and a select group that included his wife Jean, son Arthur, and Arthur's Cantonese amah, Ah Cheu, fled Corregidor. MacArthur and his party reached Del Monte Airfield on Mindanao, where B-17s picked them up, and flew them to Australia. His famous speech, in which he said, "I came through and I shall return", was first made on Terowie railway station in South Australia, on 20 March. Washington asked MacArthur to amend his promise to "We shall return". He ignored the request.

MacArthur's attempts to shield the Emperor from indictment and to have all the blame taken by General Tojo were successful, which as Herbert P. Bix commented, ". had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on the Japanese understanding of the lost war".

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) in Japan, MacArthur and his staff helped Japan rebuild itself, eradicate militarism and ultra-nationalism, promote political civil liberties, institute democratic government, and chart a new course that ultimately made Japan one of the world's leading industrial powers. The U.S. was firmly in control of Japan to oversee its reconstruction, and MacArthur was effectively the interim leader of Japan from 1945 until 1948. In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new constitution that renounced war and stripped the Emperor of his military authority. The constitution—which became effective on 3 May 1947—instituted a parliamentary system of government, under which the Emperor acted only on the advice of his ministers. It included the famous Article 9, which outlawed belligerency as an instrument of state policy and the maintenance of a standing army. The constitution also enfranchised women, guaranteed fundamental human rights, outlawed racial discrimination, strengthened the powers of Parliament and the Cabinet, and decentralized the police and local government.

Within weeks of the Chinese attack, MacArthur was forced to retreat from North Korea.[320] Seoul fell in January 1951, and both Truman and MacArthur were forced to contemplate the prospect of abandoning Korea entirely.[321] European countries did not share MacArthur's world view, distrusted his judgment, and were afraid that he might use his stature and influence with the American public to re-focus American policy away from Europe and towards Asia. They were concerned that this might lead to a major war with China, possibly involving nuclear weapons.[322] Since in February 1950 the Soviet Union and China had signed a defensive alliance committing each to go to war if the other party was attacked, the possibility that an American attack on China would cause World War III was considered to be very real at the time. In a visit to the United States in December 1950, the British prime minister, Clement Attlee, had raised the fears of the British and other European governments that "General MacArthur was running the show." In March 1951 secret United States intercepts of diplomatic dispatches disclosed clandestine conversations in which General MacArthur expressed confidence to the Tokyo embassies of Spain and Portugal that he would succeed in expanding the Korean War into a full-scale conflict with the Chinese Communists. When the intercepts came to the attention of President Truman, he was enraged to learn that MacArthur was not only trying to increase public support for his position on conducting the war, but had secretly informed foreign governments that he planned to initiate actions that were counter to United States policy. The President was unable to act immediately since he could not afford to reveal the existence of the intercepts and because of MacArthur's popularity with the public and political support in Congress. However, following the release on April 5 by Representative Martin of MacArthur's letter, Truman concluded he could relieve MacArthur of his commands without incurring unacceptable political damage.

The relief of the famous general by the unpopular politician for communicating with Congress led to a constitutional crisis, and a storm of public controversy. Polls showed that the majority of the public disapproved of the decision to relieve MacArthur. By February 1952, almost nine months later, Truman's approval rating had fallen to 22 percent. As of 2014, that remains the lowest Gallup Poll approval rating recorded by any serving president. As the increasingly unpopular war in Korea dragged on, Truman's administration was beset with a series of corruption scandals, and he eventually decided not to run for re-election.

After his recovery, MacArthur methodically began to carry out the closing acts of his life. He visited the White House for a final reunion with Eisenhower. In 1961, he made a "sentimental journey" to the Philippines, where he was decorated by President Carlos P. Garcia with the Philippine Legion of Honor. MacArthur also accepted a $900,000 (equivalent to $7.25 million in 2016) advance from Henry Luce for the rights to his memoirs, and wrote the volume that would eventually be published as Reminiscences.

President John F. Kennedy solicited MacArthur's counsel in 1961. The first of two meetings was held shortly after the Bay of Pigs Invasion. MacArthur was extremely critical of the military advice given to Kennedy, and cautioned the young President to avoid a U.S. military build-up in Vietnam, pointing out that domestic problems should be given a much greater priority. Shortly before his death, MacArthur gave similar advice to President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Death Douglas MacArthur died at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on 5 April 1964, of biliary cirrhosis.


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