Historie Podcasts

27. marts 2017 Dag 67 i det første år - Historie

27. marts 2017 Dag 67 i det første år - Historie


Devin Nunes

Devin Gerald Nunes ( / ˈ n uː n ɛ s / [1] født 1. oktober 1973) er en amerikansk politiker og tidligere mælkeproducent, der fungerer som USA's repræsentant for Californiens 22. kongresdistrikt siden 2003. Medlem af det republikanske parti, Nunes var formand for House Intelligence Committee fra 2015 til 2019. Han var også medlem af præsident Donald Trumps overgangsteam. [2] Nunes distrikt, nummereret som det 21. fra 2003 til 2013 og som det 22. efter redistriktion, ligger i San Joaquin -dalen og omfatter det meste af det vestlige Tulare County og store dele af det østlige Fresno County.

I marts 2017 iværksatte det amerikanske hus efterretningsudvalg, som Nunes dengang var formand for, en undersøgelse af mulig russisk indblanding i valget i USA 2016. Den 6. april 2017 trådte han midlertidigt fra siden med at lede undersøgelsen, mens Office of Congressional Ethics undersøgte påstande (som Nunes nægtede) om, at han forkert havde videregivet klassificerede oplysninger til offentligheden. [3] [4] I december 2017 lukkede U.S. House Committee on Ethics sin undersøgelse uden at foretage sig noget mod Nunes. [5]

I februar 2018 offentliggjorde Nunes offentligt Nunes-notatet, et memorandum på fire sider, der påstår en FBI-sammensværgelse mod Donald Trump. Nunes indledte efterfølgende en undersøgelse af FBI og justitsministeriet for angiveligt at have misbrugt deres beføjelser i et forsøg på at skade Trump. [6] [7] I januar 2021 tildelte Trump Nunes præsidentmedaljen for frihed. [8]


Tidslinje for internethistorik: ARPANET til World Wide Web

Kredit for det første koncept, der udviklede sig til World Wide Web, gives typisk til Leonard Kleinrock. I 1961 skrev han om ARPANET, internettets forgænger, i et papir med titlen "Informationsstrøm i store kommunikationsnet". Kleinrock sammen med andre innovatører som J.C.R. Licklider, den første direktør for Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO), gav rygraden til den allestedsnærværende strøm af e -mails, medier, Facebook -opslag og tweets, der nu deles online hver dag. Her er derfor en kort historie om Internettet:

Forløberen til Internettet blev startet i begyndelsen af ​​computinghistorien i 1969 med det amerikanske forsvarsdepartements Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPA-finansierede forskere udviklede mange af de protokoller, der bruges til internetkommunikation i dag. Denne tidslinje giver en kort historie om internettet og rsquos -udviklingen:

1965: To computere på MIT Lincoln Lab kommunikerer med hinanden ved hjælp af pakke-switch-teknologi.

1968: Beranek og Newman, Inc. (BBN) afslører den endelige version af specifikationerne for Interface Message Processor (IMP). BBN vinder ARPANET -kontrakten.

1969: Den 29. oktober installerer UCLA & rsquos Network Measurement Center, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), University of California-Santa Barbara og University of Utah noder. Den første besked er "LO", som var et forsøg fra studerende Charles Kline til "LOGIN" til SRI -computeren fra universitetet. Beskeden kunne imidlertid ikke udfyldes, fordi SRI -systemet gik ned.

1972: BBN & rsquos Ray Tomlinson introducerer netværks -e -mail. Internetworking Working Group (INWG) formularer til at imødekomme behovet for etablering af standardprotokoller.

1973: Globalt netværk bliver en realitet, da University College of London (England) og Royal Radar Establishment (Norge) opretter forbindelse til ARPANET. Udtrykket internet er født.

1974: Den første internetudbyder (ISP) er født med introduktionen af ​​en kommerciel version af ARPANET, kendt som Telenet.

1974: Vinton Cerf og Bob Kahn (duoen af ​​mange siges at være internettets fædre) udgiver "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", som beskriver designet af TCP.

1976: Dronning Elizabeth II rammer & ldquosend -knappen & rdquo på sin første e -mail.

1979: USENET -formularer til at være vært for nyheds- og diskussionsgrupper.

1981: National Science Foundation (NSF) gav et tilskud til at oprette Computer Science Network (CSNET) til at levere netværkstjenester til universitets dataloger.

1982: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) og Internet Protocol (IP), som protokolpakken, almindeligvis kendt som TCP/IP, fremstår som protokollen for ARPANET. Dette resulterer i den nye definition af Internettet som tilsluttede TCP/IP -internets. TCP/IP forbliver standardprotokollen for Internettet.

1983: Domain Name System (DNS) etablerer det velkendte .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net og .int system til navngivning af websteder. Dette er lettere at huske end den tidligere betegnelse for websteder, f.eks. 123.456.789.10.

1984: William Gibson, forfatter til "Neuromancer", er den første til at bruge udtrykket "cyberspace".

1985: Symbolics.com, webstedet for Symbolics Computer Corp. i Massachusetts, bliver det første registrerede domæne.

1986: National Science Foundation & rsquos NSFNET går online til tilsluttede supercomputercentre med 56.000 bits pr. Sekund og kan hastigheden af ​​et typisk opkaldt computermodem. Over tid bliver netværket hurtigere, og regionale forsknings- og uddannelsesnetværk, der delvis understøttes af NSF, er forbundet med NSFNET -rygraden og mdash udvider effektivt Internettet i hele USA. NSFNET var hovedsageligt et netværk af netværk, der forbandt akademiske brugere sammen med ARPANET.

1987: Antallet af værter på Internettet overstiger 20.000. Cisco sender sin første router.

1989: World.std.com bliver den første kommercielle udbyder af opkaldsadgang til Internettet.

1990: Tim Berners-Lee, forsker ved CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, udvikler HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Denne teknologi har fortsat stor indflydelse på, hvordan vi navigerer og ser Internettet i dag.

1991: CERN introducerer World Wide Web for offentligheden.

1992: Den første lyd og video distribueres over internettet. Udtrykket "at surfe på Internettet" er populært.

1993: Antallet af websteder når 600, og Det Hvide Hus og FN går online. Marc Andreesen udvikler Mosaic-webbrowseren ved University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Antallet af computere, der er tilsluttet NSFNET, vokser fra 2.000 i 1985 til mere end 2 millioner i 1993. National Science Foundation leder et forsøg på at skitsere en ny internetarkitektur, der ville understøtte den spirende kommercielle brug af netværket.

1994: Netscape Communications er født. Microsoft opretter en webbrowser til Windows 95.

1994: Yahoo! er skabt af Jerry Yang og David Filo, to elektriske ingeniørstuderende ved Stanford University. Webstedet hed oprindeligt "Jerry og Davids guide til World Wide Web". Virksomheden blev senere stiftet i marts 1995.

1995: Compuserve, America Online og Prodigy begynder at levere internetadgang. Amazon.com, Craigslist og eBay går live. Den originale NSFNET -rygrad fjernes, da internet- og rsquos -transformation til en kommerciel virksomhed stort set er afsluttet.

1995: Det første online datingsite, Match.com, lanceres.

1996: Browserkrigen, primært mellem de to store aktører Microsoft og Netscape, bliver varm. CNET køber tv.com for $ 15.000.

1996: En 3D -animation kaldet "The Dancing Baby" bliver en af ​​de første virale videoer.

1997: Netflix er grundlagt af Reed Hastings og Marc Randolph som et firma, der sender brugerne dvd'er via mail.

1997: PC -producenter kan fjerne eller skjule Microsoft & rsquos internetsoftware på nye versioner af Windows 95 takket være et forlig med justitsministeriet. Netscape meddeler, at dets browser vil være gratis.

1998: Googles søgemaskine er født og ændrer den måde, brugerne interagerer med Internettet.

1998: Internetprotokol version 6 blev introduceret for at muliggøre fremtidig vækst af internetadresser. Den nuværende mest udbredte protokol er version 4. IPv4 bruger 32-bit adresser, der giver mulighed for 4,3 milliarder unikke adresser IPv6, med 128-bit adresser, tillader 3,4 x 1038 unikke adresser eller 340 billioner billioner billioner.

1999: AOL køber Netscape. Peer-to-peer fildeling bliver en realitet, da Napster ankommer til internettet, til stor glæde for musikindustrien.

2000: Dot-com-boblen brister. Websteder som Yahoo! og eBay rammes af et stort denial of service-angreb, der fremhæver sårbarheden på Internettet. AOL fusionerer med Time Warner

2001: En forbundsdommer lukker Napster og fastslår, at den skal finde en måde at forhindre brugere i at dele ophavsretligt beskyttet materiale, før det kan gå online igen.

2003: SQL Slammer -ormen spredte sig på verdensplan på bare 10 minutter. Myspace, Skype og Safari webbrowser debut.

2003: Blogpubliceringsplatformen WordPress lanceres.

2004: Facebook går online, og æraen med sociale netværk begynder. Mozilla afslører Mozilla Firefox -browseren.

2005: YouTube.com lanceres. Det sociale nyhedswebsted Reddit er også grundlagt.

2006: AOL ændrer sin forretningsmodel, tilbyder de fleste tjenester gratis og er afhængig af reklame for at generere indtægter. Internet Governance Forum mødes for første gang.

2006: Twitter lanceres. Virksomhedens grundlægger, Jack Dorsey, sender det allerførste tweet ud: "bare at oprette min twttr."

2009: Internettet markerer sit 40 -års jubilæum.

2010: Facebook når 400 millioner aktive brugere.

2010: De sociale mediesider Pinterest og Instagram lanceres.

2011: Twitter og Facebook spiller en stor rolle i mellemøstlige oprør.

2012: Præsident Barack Obamas administration meddeler sin modstand mod store dele af Stop Online Piracy Act og Protect Intellectual Property Act, som ville have vedtaget brede nye regler, der kræver, at internetudbydere politiserer ophavsretligt beskyttet indhold. Det vellykkede skub for at stoppe regningen, der involverer teknologivirksomheder som Google og nonprofit-organisationer, herunder Wikipedia og Electronic Frontier Foundation, betragtes som en sejr for websteder som YouTube, der er afhængige af brugergenereret indhold, samt "fair use" på internettet.

2013: Edward Snowden, en tidligere CIA -medarbejder og entreprenør fra National Security Agency (NSA), afslører, at NSA havde et overvågningsprogram, der kunne udnytte kommunikation mellem tusinder af mennesker, herunder amerikanske borgere.

2013: 51 procent af amerikanske voksne rapporterer, at de banker online, ifølge en undersøgelse foretaget af Pew Research Center.

2015: Instagram, fotodelingswebstedet, når 400 millioner brugere og overgår Twitter, hvilket vil nå 316 millioner brugere i midten af ​​samme år.

2016: Google afslører Google Assistant, et stemmeaktiveret personlig assistentprogram, der markerer internetgigantens indtog i den "smarte" edb-assistentmarked. Google slutter sig til Amazons Alexa, Siri fra Apple og Cortana fra Microsoft.


Hvem er i farezonen?

I 2019 var næsten halvdelen af ​​verdens befolkning i fare for malaria. De fleste malariatilfælde og dødsfald forekommer i Afrika syd for Sahara. WHO-regionerne i Sydøstasien, det østlige Middelhav, det vestlige Stillehav og Amerika er imidlertid også i fare.

Nogle befolkningsgrupper har en betydeligt højere risiko for at pådrage sig malaria og udvikle alvorlig sygdom end andre. Disse omfatter spædbørn, børn under 5 år, gravide og patienter med hiv/aids samt ikke-immun migranter, mobile befolkninger og rejsende. Nationale malariakontrolprogrammer skal træffe særlige foranstaltninger for at beskytte disse befolkningsgrupper mod malaria -infektion under hensyntagen til deres særlige omstændigheder.


Tabellen er sorteret efter dato. Se venligst vores udviklingsplan for fremtidige udgivelser og en alternativ visning af udgivelseshistorikken.

FrigøreUdgivelses dato
GCC 8.5 14. maj 2021
GCC 11.1 27. april 2021
GCC 10.3 8. april 2021
GCC 10.2 23. juli 2020
GCC 10.1 7. maj 2020
GCC 9.3 12. marts 2020
GCC 8.4 4. marts 2020
GCC 7.5 14. november 2019
GCC 9.2 12. august 2019
GCC 9.1 3. maj 2019
GCC 8.3 22. februar 2019
GCC 7.4 6. december 2018
GCC 6.5 26. oktober 2018
GCC 8.2 26. juli 2018
GCC 8.1 2. maj 2018
GCC 7.3 25. januar 2018
GCC 5.5 10. oktober 2017
GCC 7.2 14. august 2017
GCC 6.4 4. juli 2017
GCC 7.1 2. maj 2017
GCC 6.3 21. december 2016
GCC 6.2 22. august 2016
GCC 4.9.4 3. august 2016
GCC 5.4 3. juni 2016
GCC 6.1 27. april 2016
GCC 5.3 4. december 2015
GCC 5.2 16. juli 2015
GCC 4.9.3 26. juni 2015
GCC 4.8.5 23. juni 2015
GCC 5.1 22. april 2015
GCC 4.8.4 19. december 2014
GCC 4.9.2 30. oktober 2014
GCC 4.9.1 16. juli 2014
GCC 4.7.4 12. juni 2014
GCC 4.8.3 22. maj 2014
GCC 4.9.0 22. april 2014
GCC 4.8.2 16. oktober 2013
GCC 4.8.1 31. maj 2013
GCC 4.6.4 12. april 2013
GCC 4.7.3 11. april 2013
GCC 4.8.0 22. marts 2013
GCC 4.7.2 20. september 2012
GCC 4.5.4 2. juli 2012
GCC 4.7.1 14. juni 2012
GCC 4.7.0 22. marts 2012
GCC 4.4.7 13. marts 2012
GCC 4.6.3 1. marts 2012
GCC 4.6.2 26. oktober 2011
GCC 4.6.1 27. juni 2011
GCC 4.3.6 27. juni 2011
GCC 4.5.3 28. april 2011
GCC 4.4.6 16. april 2011
GCC 4.6.0 25. marts 2011
GCC 4.5.2 16. december 2010
GCC 4.4.5 1. oktober 2010
GCC 4.5.1 31. juli 2010
GCC 4.3.5 22. maj 2010
GCC 4.4.4 29. april 2010
GCC 4.5.0 14. april 2010
GCC 4.4.3 21. januar 2010
GCC 4.4.2 15. oktober 2009
GCC 4.3.4 4. august 2009
GCC 4.4.1 22. juli 2009
GCC 4.4.0 21. april 2009
GCC 4.3.3 24. januar 2009
GCC 4.3.2 27. august 2008
GCC 4.3.1 6. juni 2008
GCC 4.2.4 19. maj 2008
GCC 4.3.0 5. marts 2008
GCC 4.2.3 1. februar 2008
GCC 4.2.2 7. oktober 2007
GCC 4.2.1 18. juli 2007
GCC 4.2.0 13. maj 2007
GCC 4.1.2 13. februar 2007
GCC 4.0.4 31. januar 2007
GCC 4.1.1 24. maj 2006
GCC 4.0.3 10. marts 2006
GCC 3.4.6 06. marts 2006
GCC 4.1.0 28. februar 2006
GCC 3.4.5 30. november 2005
GCC 4.0.2 28. september 2005
GCC 4.0.1 7. juli 2005
GCC 3.4.4 18. maj 2005
GCC 3.3.6 3. maj 2005
GCC 4.0.0 20. april 2005
GCC 3.4.3 4. november 2004
GCC 3.3.5 30. september 2004
GCC 3.4.2 6. september 2004
GCC 3.4.1 1. juli 2004
GCC 3.3.4 31. maj 2004
GCC 3.4.0 18. april 2004
GCC 3.3.3 14. februar 2004
GCC 3.3.2 17. oktober 2003
GCC 3.3.1 8. august 2003
GCC 3.3 13. maj 2003
GCC 3.2.3 22. april 2003
GCC 3.2.2 5. februar 2003
GCC 3.2.1 19. november 2002
GCC 3.2 14. august 2002
GCC 3.1.1 25. juli 2002
GCC 3.1 15. maj 2002
GCC 3.0.4 20. februar 2002
GCC 3.0.3 20. december 2001
GCC 3.0.2 25. oktober 2001
GCC 3.0.1 20. august 2001
GCC 3.0 18. juni 2001
GCC 2.95.3 16. marts 2001
GCC 2.95.2 24. oktober 1999
GCC 2.95.1 19. august 1999
GCC 2,95 31. juli 1999
EGCS 1.1.2 15. marts 1999
EGCS 1.1.1 1. december 1998
EGCS 1.1 3. september 1998
EGCS 1.0.3 15. maj 1998
EGCS 1.0.2 16. marts 1998
gcc 2.8.1 2. marts 1998
gcc 2.8.0 7. januar 1998
EGCS 1.0.1 6. januar 1998
EGCS 1.0 3. december 1997
2.7.2.322. august 1997
2.7.2.229. januar 1997
2.7.2.129. juni 1996
2.7.226. november 1995
2.7.112. november 1995
2.7.016. juni 1995
2.6.330. november 1994
2.6.212. november 1994
2.6.11. november 1994
2.6.014. juli 1994
2.5.824. januar 1994
2.5.712. december 1993
2.5.63. december 1993
2.5.527. november 1993
2.5.416. november 1993
2.5.311. november 1993
2.5.21. november 1993
2.5.131. oktober 1993
2.5.022. oktober 1993
2.4.520. juni 1993
2.4.419. juni 1993
2.4.31. juni 1993
2.4.231. maj 1993
2.4.126. maj 1993
2.4.017. maj 1993
2.3.326. december 1992
2.3.227. november 1992
2.3.11. november 1992
2.331. oktober 1992
2.2.214. juni 1992
2.2.19. juni 1992
2.28. juni 1992
2.124. marts 1992
2.022. februar 1992
1,42,0 (g ++)20. september 1992
1.4220. september 1992
1.4127. august 1992
1,41,0 (g ++)13. juli 1992
1,40,3 (g ++)19. oktober 1991
1.401. juni 1991
1,39,1 (g ++)4. maj 1991
1.3916. januar 1991
1.3821. december 1990
1,37,1 (g ++)1. marts 1990
1,37,0 (g ++)28. februar 1990
1.37.121. februar 1990
1.3711. februar 1990
1,36,4 (g ++)30. januar 1990
1,36,3 (g ++)16. januar 1990
1.3624. september 1989
1.3526. april 1989
1.3423. februar 1989
1.331. februar 1989
1.3221. december 1988
1.3119. november 1988
1.3013. oktober 1988
1.296. oktober 1988
1.2814. september 1988
1.275. september 1988
1.2618. august 1988
1.253. august 1988
1.242. juli 1988
1.2326. juni 1988
1.2222. maj 1988
1.211. maj 1988
1.2019. april 1988
1.1929. marts 1988
1.184. februar 1988
1.179. januar 1988
1.1619. december 1987
1.15.3 (g ++)18. december 1987
1.1528. november 1987
1.146. november 1987
1.1312. oktober 1987
1.123. oktober 1987
1.115. september 1987 (annonceret sent)
1.1022. august 1987
1.918. august 1987 (aldrig annonceret)
1.810. august 1987
1.721. juli 1987
1.62. juli 1987
1.518. juni 1987
1.413. juni 1987
1.310. juni 1987
1.21. juni 1987
1.124. maj 1987
1.023. maj 1987
0,9 (første betaversion)22. marts 1987

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Væsentlige begivenheder i canadisk historie

Betydningen af ​​en begivenhed kan ikke måles videnskabeligt. Hver historiker, journalist eller studerende kunne lave deres egne lister. Dette valg er beregnet til at henlede opmærksomheden på en række begivenheder i canadisk historie, der satte et uudsletteligt præg på datidens menneskers liv og en ubestridelig hukommelse i senere generationers sind.

Bjarni Herjolfsson så fastlandet Nordamerika, sandsynligvis Newfoundland, det sydlige Labrador og Baffin Island. Bjarni var sandsynligvis den første europæer, der besøgte Nordamerika, og hans opdagelse førte til en kort nordisk kolonisering af Newfoundland.

John Cabot gør krav på Atlanterhavskysten

John Cabot landede på Atlanterhavskysten i Nordamerika og hævdede det for England. Cabots opdagelse førte til Englands interesse for det, der nu er Atlantic Canada, især fiskeriet.

Indfødt befolkning varierer fra 200.000 til 500.000

Estimater for den oprindelige befolkning spænder fra 200.000 til 500.000 mennesker, selvom nogle tyder på, at den var så høj som 2,5 millioner, med mellem 300 og 450 sprog talt.

Jacques Cartier er en af ​​de første europæere, der kom ind i St. Lawrence -floden. I 1535, mens han var på sin anden af ​​tre rejser, hører Cartier det irokanske ord for landsby, kanata og dokumenterer navnet i sin journal. Navnet Canada vises efterfølgende på 1547 Harleian verdenskortet, hvilket angiver land nord for St. Lawrence.

Efterforskning og bosættelse af oprindelige folk

Pelshandel bliver en stor kommerciel virksomhed

Fra begyndelsen af ​​det 17. til midten af ​​det 19. århundrede er pelshandlen en stor kommerciel virksomhed på tværs af det, der nu er Canada. Indfødt teknologi og viden er afgørende for den konkurrencedygtige handel og for europæernes overlevelse.

Samuel de Champlain etablerede en befæstet handelspost i Québec, det perfekte sted at fremme pelshandlen og tjene som grundlag for dens grundlægger idé om at kolonisere det fjerne land.

Efterforskning og bosættelse af oprindelige folk

Samuel de Champlain og hans første nationers allierede kæmper mod Haudenosaunee

Kolonial administrator Samuel de Champlain udforsker Haudenosaunee's traditionelle område. Den 30. juli kæmper Champlain og hans First Nations -allierede mod Haudenosaunee og starter 150 års krig mellem Haudenosaunee og franske kolonistyrker.

Efterforskning og bosættelse af oprindelige folk

Maisonneuve stifter Ville-Marie

Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve grundlagde Ville-Marie, som var bestemt til at blive den vigtigste handelsstation i New France og den fremtidige by Montréal. Maisonneuve fungerede som guvernør indtil 1665.

Wendake besejret af Haudenosaunee

Svækket af sygdom og kulturel indblanding af franskmændene, Huron-Wendat-hjemlandet kendt som Wendake blev ødelagt af Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Mellem 1649 og 1650 forlod omkring 500 Huron-Wendat Georgian Bay for at søge tilflugt tæt på franskmændene i Quebec City-regionen. Mange blev enten dræbt eller adopteret til Haudenosaunee -nationer. Huron-Wendat First Nation er dog stadig tilbage-i Wendake, Quebec.

Efterforskning og bosættelsesvidenskab og industri

Hudson's Bay Company er etableret

Hudson's Bay Company er etableret og danner monopol og øger mængden af ​​varer i pelshandlen. I århundreder fremover handles tæpper bredt, herunder det ikoniske HBC Point Blanket, der først blev fremstillet i 1779 og stadig er tilgængeligt i dag. Set af nogle som et element af kulturel betydning, minder det andre om kolonialismens kræfter.

Edward Cornwallis ankom til Chebucto havn forud for 2.567 nybyggere. Arbejdet begyndte med byen Halifax, der erstattede Annapolis Royal som hovedstad i Nova Scotia og etablerede et stærkt britisk fodfæste i Nova Scotia.

Udvisning af Acadianerne

Mellem 1755 og 1763 deporteres cirka 10.000 akadianere, efter at delegerede nægtede at aflægge troskab til Storbritannien. Acadians, det første franske samfund i Canada, er allierede med Mi'kmaq og besidder en særpræget kultur. Efter Acadian udvisning dør tusinder af sygdom eller sult.

Syvårskrigen er den første globale krig, der udkæmpes i Europa, Indien, Amerika og til søs. I Nordamerika kæmpede Storbritannien og Frankrig (hjulpet af indfødte allierede) for overherredømme. Med Paris -traktaten afstår Frankrig formelt Canada til briterne.

Slaget ved Abrahams sletter

Om natten den 12.-13. September ledte general James Wolfe sine soldater op ad en ubevogtet gangsti og tog til kamp før fæstningsmurene. Montcalm angreb om morgenen, men hans linje gik i stykker, og Québec faldt i britiske hænder. Begge generaler omkom.

Oprindelige folks militære/oprør

Pontiacs modstand giver et stærkt udtryk for indfødt enhed. Under ledelse af Ottawa -chefen Obwandiyag (Pontiac) forsøger en indfødt alliance at modstå europæisk besættelse ved at befri den nederste Great Lakes -region af engelske nybyggere og soldater.

Quebec -loven blev vedtaget (med virkning fra 1. maj 1775) den etablerede fransk civilret, britisk straffelov, religionsfrihed for romersk katolikker og regering ved udpeget råd. Det udvidede grænserne for provinsen til Ohio Valley.

Amerikanske styrker, der belejrede Québec, iværksatte et desperat natangreb. Den amerikanske general Richard Montgomery blev dræbt, da angrebet blev slået tilbage med store tab. De franske beboere havde undladt at støtte amerikanerne, og Canada forblev britisk.

De første United Empire Loyalists - 1.124 flygtninge fra New England - ankom til Halifax, NS. Yderligere omkring 40.000 fulgte dem til NS og til Québec. Immigrationen resulterede i dannelsen af ​​New Brunswick og Upper Canada.

Mackenzie når Stillehavet

Alexander Mackenzie -partiet nåede Stillehavet via Bella Coola -floden, den første opdagelsesrejsende, der gennemførte rejsen over land. Selvom det var en fysisk triumf, lykkedes det ikke Mackenzies præstation at give pelshandlerne en levedygtig rute.

Efterforskning og bosættelse af oprindelige folk

HBC bevilgede et område på omkring 185 000 km² til Lord Selkirk til dannelse af en koloni ved Red River. Hans første bosættere ankom i sommeren 1812. På trods af trængsler voksede bosættelsen til den første europæiske koloni i Nordvest.

Oprindelige folks militære/oprør

Slaget ved Queenston Heights

Amerikanerne krydsede Niagara -floden og angreb højlandet i Queenston Heights. Hans sværd trukket, generalmajor Brock førte tropper i kamp og blev dødeligt såret. Slaget tabte i det væsentlige Grand River Mohawk-krigere ledet af John Norton (Teyoninhokarawen) forhindrede amerikanske styrker i at trække sig tilbage i flere timer, indtil forstærkninger ledet af generalmajor Roger Sheaffe ankom og tvang over 1.000 amerikanske soldater til at overgive sig.

Krigen i 1812 ender med fredstraktaten i Gent. Imidlertid led First Nations -allierede af den britiske og canadiske sag, at de mistede krigere (herunder den store Tecumseh), mistede håbet om at standse amerikansk ekspansion i vest, og deres bidrag blev hurtigt glemt af deres allierede.

Miljøvidenskab og industri

To skonnert passerede fra Port Dalhousie til Port Robinson, Upper Canada, og åbnede symbolsk Welland -kanalen og forbandt søerne Erie og Ontario for første gang. Kanalen åbnede vejen mod vest og imødegjorde truslen fra den amerikanske Erie -kanal.

Grosse Île, nær Québec, blev åbnet som karantænestation under koleraepidemierne, og alle skibe stoppede der for inspektion. Denne station var et forgæves forsøg fra regeringen på at kontrollere sygdommen, der dræbte op til 10% af befolkningen.

Joseph Howe blev frifundet for injurier for at have offentliggjort en artikel i sin avis, Novaskoteren, kritisk over for Halifaxs magistrater. Retssagen markerede et vendepunkt i reformpolitikens historie i Nova Scotia.

First Railway åbner i Canada

Canadas første jernbane, Champlain og St Lawrence Railroad, åbnede officielt den startede driften den 25. juli. Jernbanen indvarslede den vigtigste ændring i transport i canadisk historie.

Opstand i Nedre Canada

Guvernør Gosford udstedte warrants for anholdelse af 26 Patriote -ledere på anklager om højforræderi, der indledte begivenhederne i det nedre Canada -oprør. Tropper og Patriotes var i kamp et par dage senere.

Kunst og kultur Socialhistorie

Garneau udgiver Histoire du Canada

Det første bind af François-Xavier Garneaus Historie du Canada blev udgivet i Québec. Det var den mest fremragende historiebog i et århundrede i Québec og et incitament til patriotisme og stolthed.

Oregon -grænsetraktaten blev underskrevet, der etablerede grænsen mellem britisk Nordamerika og USA på 49 ° nordlig bredde, forlod Vancouver Island i britiske hænder og skabte et forlig, som Canada og USA kunne leve i harmoni med.

Første Telegraph i Canada

Toronto, Hamilton, Niagara og St Catharines Telegraph Company blev etableret, det første telegraffirma i Canada. Den første sektion blev åbnet til brug 19. december 1846 fra Toronto til Hamilton. Telegrafen ændrede livet i 1800 -tallet dybt.

Ryerson udgiver rapport om uddannelse

Egerton Ryerson udgav sin Rapport om et system for offentlig elementær instruktion for Upper Canada. Det beskriver et uddannelsessystem baseret på kristen tro, universel adgang og statsstøtte. Det ville være en model for engelsktalende Canada. For sine bidrag til uddannelse blev Ryerson University i Toronto opkaldt efter ham. Hans rolle i udviklingen af ​​boligskolesystemet har imidlertid fået aktivister til at opfordre til at universitetet omdøbes.

Ansvarlig regering i Nova Scotia

James Boyle Uniake blev leder af en ny reformregering. Nova Scotia var således den første koloni i det britiske imperium, hvor ansvarlig regering var gældende. Ansvarlig regering betød, at en koloni nød fuldstændigt selvstyre i indenrigsanliggender, og at en regering kun regerede med støtte fra flertallet af den valgte forsamling (oprindelsen til dagens kabinetsregering).

Søg efter Franklin Begins

Robert McClure og Richard Collinson begyndte den omfattende søgning efter Franklin, sandsynligvis den største søgemission i efterforskningens historie. I processen blev mere afsløret om nordens geografi end på noget andet tidspunkt.

Augustin Morin og Sir Allan MacNab dannede en politisk koalition, der gennemførte sekulariseringen af ​​gejstlige reserver og afslutningen på den seigneuriske periode og udgjorde grundlaget for det fremtidige konservative parti.

Grand Trunk Railway blev færdiggjort fra Guelph til Stratford, Ont den sidste strækning fra St Marys til Sarnia blev færdig den 21. november. GTR var en væsentlig faktor i Canadas økonomiske udvikling.

Den første bølge af minearbejdere fra Californien ankom til Victoria på vej til Fraser River Gold Rush. Gold Rush forårsagede et voldsomt fald i den indfødte befolkning og politisk forenede British Columbia.

En konvention om spredte reformelementer i Upper Canada mødtes i Toronto. Under George Browns ledelse stemte konventionen for at støtte en lovgivende union af canadierne og satte scenen for tættere samarbejde mellem engelsk og fransk.

Nordamerikas ældste løbende kørte hestevæddeløb, Queen's Plate, blev først afholdt på Torontos Carleton Track. Det var åbent for alle heste opdrættet i Upper Canada, der endnu ikke havde vundet penge, og præmien var 50 Guineas.

Charlottetown -konferencen blev afholdt i Charlottetown, PEI. På konferencen blev Maritime Union praktisk talt droppet, og delegaterne blev enige om at møde en ny konference i Québec for at diskutere en canadisk ordning for en union af alle kolonierne.

British North America Act

Det British North America Act blev vedtaget af det britiske parlament og givet kongelig samtykke af dronning Victoria den 29. marts. Den trådte i kraft den 1. juli. Loven sluttede sig til kolonierne Canada, Nova Scotia og New Brunswick i en føderal union. I 1949 blev Newfoundland Canadas nyeste provins. I 1999 blev Nunavut Canadas nyeste område. Dens oprettelse etablerer selvstyre for regionens inuitiske befolkning.

Oprindelige folks militære/oprør

Med 120 mand besatte Louis Riel Upper Fort Garry i Red River Colony for at blokere overførslen af ​​Rupert's Land fra Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) til Canada. Kendt som Red River Resistance, Métis - ledet af Riel - og First Nations allierede forsvarede Red River Colony fra hvide nybyggere og regeringens indgreb i deres landområder. Louis Riel blev hængt for forræderi, og Cree -høvdinge Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear) og Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker) blev fængslet. Løfter om at beskytte metierne blev stadig ikke opfyldt mere end et årti senere, hvilket udløste modstanden mod nordvest i 1885. I 2019 blev Poundmaker fritaget af den føderale regering.

Washington -traktaten gav amerikanerne fiskerirettigheder i canadiske farvande og brug af canadiske kanaler og St Lawrence -floden. Canadierne fik lov til at navigere i Lake Michigan, St Clair Flats Canal og Alaskan floder.

Den første post-konføderationstraktat blev underskrevet i Lower Fort Garry, Man. Den første af mange "nummererede traktater", traktat 1 blev underskrevet mellem Crown og Ojibwe og Swampy Cree Nations. Traktaten omfattede levering af husdyr, landbrugsudstyr og etablering af skoler i bytte for at afstå store områder af indfødte jagtområder.

Traktat 2 blev indgået med Chippewa fra Manitoba, der afstod land fra mundingen af ​​Winnipeg -floden til den nordlige bred af Manitoba -søen over Assiniboine -floden til USA's grænse.

Traktat 3 blev underskrevet af Saulteaux (Chippewa) i det nordvestlige Ontario og Manitoba. Til overgivelse af en traktat på omkring 55.000 kvadratkilometer forbeholdt Dominion -regeringen ikke mere end en kvadratkilometer for hver familie på fem og gik med til at betale $ 12 pr. Indbygger og en livrente på $ 5 pr. Indbygger.

Traktat 4 blev underskrevet i Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, med Cree, Saulteaux (Chippewa) og andre First Nations.

Traktat 5 blev indgået ved Winnipeg -søen og afstod et område på cirka 100.000 kvadratkilometer beboet af Chippewa og Swampy Cree (Maskegon) i Manitoba og Ontario.

Urfolks politik

Det Indisk lov introduceres. Loven har til formål at udrydde First Nations-kultur til fordel for assimilering i det euro-canadiske samfund.

Traktat 6 blev underskrevet i Carlton og i Fort Pitt med Plains Cree, Woodland Cree og Assiniboine. Det afstod et område på 120.000 kvadratkilometer fra sletterne i Saskatchewan og Alberta.

Urfolks politik

Traktat 7 blev underskrevet ved Blackfoot Crossing i det sydlige Alberta af Siksika, Kainai, Piikani, Tsuut'ina og Stoney. Canadiske embedsmænd forstod, at First Nations ved traktaten overgav omkring 35.000 kvadratkilometer land til kronen til gengæld for reserver, betalinger og livrenter.

Efterforskning og bosættelse af oprindelige folk

Britisk suverænitet over de arktiske øer gik til Canada.

Edward Hanlan besejrede E.A. Trichett fra Australien til verdensmesterskabet i singler, der ror på Thames River-banen, der blev berømt af bådsejladet Oxford-Cambridge. Hanlan var Canadas første verdensmester i sport.

Sidste spike drevet til HLR

Den "sidste stigning" på Canadian Pacific Railway blev hamret af Lord Strathcona i Craigellachie, British Columbia. Dette opfyldte et regeringsløfte om at forbinde BC til det østlige Canada via en transkontinentale jernbane. Among the workers who built the railway were 15,000 labourers from China, many of whom died during the railway’s construction.

Indigenous Peoples Military/Rebellions

Louis Riel was hanged for treason at the Regina jail. He had been convicted after a trial held in Regina from 28 July to 1 August. Macdonald's refusal to grant leniency made Riel a symbol of English-Canadian oppression.

The Manitoba School Act abolished publicly funded support for separate schools for Catholics. The aggrieved French minority argued that the Act violated the agreements under which Manitoba entered Confederation.

First Stanley Cup Awarded

The Stanley Cup, donated by Governor General Lord Stanley, was first awarded to the Montreal AAA hockey team. Montreal defeated the Ottawa Generals 3-1.

Sifton Encourages Immigration

Clifford Sifton removed red tape, broadened the selection of potential immigrants and offered incentives to those who would come to settle the Canadian West, "the last, best West." The result was an influx of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe that changed the composition of the Canadian population forever.

Liberal Victory, Laurier PM

In the federal election, the Liberals defeated the Conservatives with 118 seats to 88. Wilfrid Laurier became Canada's first French-Canadian prime minister and marked a turning point in Canadian politics after years of Conservative Party rule.

Environment Exploration & Settlement Science & Industry

Klondike Gold Rush Begins

George Washington Carmack, Skookum Jim and Tagish Charlie discovered gold on Bonanza Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River. During the Klondike Gold Rush from 1897 to 1899 at least 100,000 people stampeded to the gold fields.

Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and Slavey First Nations ceded territory south and west of Great Slave Lake in northern Alberta to the federal government in Treaty 8.

Amundsen Completes Passage

Roald Amundsen, travelling west of King William Island, sighted an American whaling ship that had come from San Francisco. At this point, he knew that he had achieved the Northwest Passage, a quest that had obsessed explorers for nearly 400 years.

Exploration & Settlement Politics

Alberta and Saskatchewan Become Provinces

Alberta and Saskatchewan entered Canada as the 8th and 9th provinces by two federal Acts which received royal assent on 20 July. Alberta's boundary with Saskatchewan was set at 110°, though Albertans wanted 107°. The Acts (Autonomy Bills) declared that the West was to have non-denominational schools.

The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario was created, with Adam Beck as chairman. It was the first publicly owned electric utility in the world.

Environment Exploration & Settlement

Charles Saunders Develops Marquis Wheat

Charles Edward Saunders completed the development of Marquis wheat, a fast-maturing variety suited to the Prairies. It was first distributed to farmers in 1909 and greatly extended the area in which wheat could be grown. By 1920 it comprised 90% of the wheat grown on the Prairies.

John Alexander Douglas McCurdy (1886-1961) flew the aircraft the Silver Dart for about one kilometer at Baddeck, NS. It was the first powered flight of a heavier-than-air machine in Canada and the British Empire.

On Easter Monday, four Canadian divisions and one British brigade captured Vimy Ridge, near Arras, France, with a loss of 3578 killed and 7000 wounded. It was a brilliant victory for the Canadians, who sensed a new national awareness.

Borden Announces Conscription

Sir Robert Borden announced his decision in Parliament to implement Conscription. The imposition of conscription on reluctant French Canadians was a failure and bitterly divided the country along French-English lines.

Exploration & Settlement Military/Rebellions Social History

At Halifax, the French munitions ship Mont Blanc collided with the Belgian relief ship Imo. The resulting explosion, the largest before the advent of the atomic bomb, killed more than 1,600 people and injured 9,000 in Canada's worst disaster.

Spanish Influenza Epidemic

Possibly the most devastating epidemic in human history, which may have originated in Funston, Kansas, spread through Europe and the world, killing some 30 million people, including about 50 000 Canadians. The virus arrived with servicemen on board the ship Araguaya at Halifax. The first civilian outbreak in Canada occurred on September 8, 1918.

Winnipeg General Strike Begins

The Winnipeg General Strike, the largest strike in Canadian history, occurs. Between May 15 and June 25, more than 30,000 workers leave their jobs. The strike does not immediately improve job conditions, but it unites Canada’s working class.

Seven Toronto-based artists, frustrated with the conservatism of Canadian art, exhibit their work as the Group of Seven. Their interpretations of the Canadian landscape gain international attention and create a new artistic vision in Canada.

Banting and Best Isolate Insulin

Frederick Banting and Charles Best at the University of Toronto first isolated insulin. The first diabetes patient was treated on 11 January 1922. Banting and J.J.R. Macleod received the Nobel Prize for their achievement.

The Stock Market Crash of 1929

The collapse of the American stock market begins the Great Depression, which ravages the Canadian economy during the “Dirty Thirties.” Life is especially harsh in the Prairies, where drought worsens conditions. The crisis inspires the creation of social welfare programs.

Statute of Westminster is Passed

The Statute of Westminster received royal assent after being passed by the British Parliament. By establishing complete legislative equality between the parliaments of Britain and Canada, it is the closest Canada has come to a declaration of independence.

CRBC (future CBC) Established

Parliament passed an Act establishing the publicly funded Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, the forerunner of the Canadian Broadcasting Corp of 1936. Before the CRBC almost the only programs available to Canadians were from the US.

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was founded in Calgary. Led by J.S. Woodsworth, the CCF was the first major democratic socialist movement in Canada and went on to have a profound effect on the Canadian political landscape.

Poet, novelist, singer and songwriter Leonard Cohen was born in Westmount , Québec . Cohen was one of the most iconic Canadian artists of the 20th century. A sage, mystic, bohemian and romantic, he built an acclaimed body of literary work and a revered career in pop music .

Social Credit Victory in Alberta

Charismatic Bible-thumping William Aberhart led the Social Credit Party to victory in the Alberta provincial elections. He was sworn in on September 3. The party dominated Alberta politics until 1971.

Ducks Unlimited Canada was founded in 1938, one year after Ducks Unlimited Inc. was founded in the United States. The organization received money from waterfowl hunters for wetland habitat conservation projects in Canada.

National Film Board Created

The National Film Act created the National Film Board, headed by Scots film producer John Grierson. The NFB pioneered developments in social documentary, animation, documentary drama and direct cinema. Its films have won hundreds of international awards.

Canada Declares War on Germany

Canada declared war on Germany, 7 days after Britain and France. The first Canadian troops left for England in December. Although "obliged to go to war at Britain's side," King's delay of a week was a symbolic gesture of independence.

Air Training Plan Established

The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was established. Operating from 1940–45 the BCATP trained some 131,000 airmen — one-half the total Commonwealth aircrew — a decisive Canadian contribution to victory in the Second World War.

Exploration & Settlement Military/Rebellions

Following the Japanese strike on Pearl Harbour, the federal government interns 22,000 Japanese men, women and children in British Columbia for the remainder of the war. The government apologizes for Japanese internment in 1988. Similar actions had taken place in 1914, with the internment of nationals from Germany, and the Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Empires.

Canadian and British troops raided the French port of Dieppe to test German defences. The raid lasted only 9 hours, but of the nearly 5000 Canadian soldiers involved, more than 900 were killed and 1874 taken prisoner.

The 3rd Canadian Division and 2nd and 3rd Armoured Brigades landed on the beaches at Courcelles, St Aubin and Bernières-sur-Mer on the Normandy Coast as part of the invasions that led to the liberation of Europe from Nazi occupation.

Viola Desmond Dragged Out of Nova Scotia Movie Theatre

Viola Desmond is dragged out of a Nova Scotia movie theatre and charged by police after she refuses to move from the main floor of the theatre to the balcony, where Black patrons were segregated. Her decision to fight her charges raises awareness of the racism experienced by Black Canadians. The Nova Scotia government posthumously pardons her in 2010.

Environment Science & Industry

Hunter Strikes Oil at Leduc

Vern "Dry Hole" Hunter struck oil near Leduc, Alta. The discovery ended a long decline in the Alberta oil industry, began an era of prosperity for the province and spared Canada dependence on foreign oil.

Canada's First Nuclear Reactors

The NRX reactor, the ancestor of Canada's unique CANDU reactors, "went critical" at Chalk River, Ont. The NRX was based on Canada's first nuclear reactor, ZEEP (1 watt of power), which was built at Chalk River in 1945.

Newfoundland Becomes Province

Newfoundland entered the Dominion of Canada as the 10th province through an Act of Westminster. The first session of the legislature was held at St. John's on 13 July.

Politics Science & Industry

North Atlantic Treaty (NATO)

Canada, along with 11 other countries, signed the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington, DC. The NATO treaty marked a new era of ties with the United States and of distance from Great Britain and spelled out the importance of economic collaboration.

Environment Science & Industry

The 1770 km oil pipeline from Edmonton to the Great Lakes was completed, linking Canada's gas fields with the markets of central Canada. In 1958 Alberta gas finally reached Toronto and imports of Texas gas ended.

The report of the Massey Commission was tabled in the House of Commons among its recommendations was the creation of the Canada Council.

Gould Records Goldberg Variations

Glenn Gould made his Washington and New York debuts. He made his first recording of the Bach Goldberg Variations later that year (released 1956), one of the most famous recordings of the century.

L.B. Pearson and his colleagues at the United Nations won General Assembly support for an international force to secure the cessation of hostilities in the Suez Canal crisis in Egypt. Canadian General E.L.M. Burns was named commander of the UN Emergency Force. This establishes Canada’s reputation as a peacekeeping nation and earns Pearson a Nobel Peace Prize.

Environment Science & Industry

St Lawrence Seaway Formally Opened

The St Lawrence Seaway was opened to commercial shipping. Queen Elizabeth II and President Eisenhower dedicated it on June 26. The Seaway provided transportation for ocean going vessels from Lake Superior to Montréal.

The Liberals under Jean Lesage won the Québec provincial election, finally breaking the hold of the Union Nationale, and signalling a time for change and reform that has become known as the Quiet Revolution. Lesage was sworn in as premier on 5 Jul.

Canadian Bill of Rights Approved

The House of Commons approved the Canadian Bill of Rights, which received royal assent on August 10. Although the Bill did not bind the provinces, it obliged the federal government to gurantee civil rights and freedoms to all Canadians.

Medicare in Effect: Doctors Strike

When the Saskatchewan Medicare Act came into force, most Saskatchewan doctors closed their offices. The Medical Care Insurance Commission brought doctors from out of province to meet the emergency.

Arts and Culture Politics

A new national flag of Canada was adopted after much debate. The Senate gave its approval on 17 December. Queen Elizabeth signed the royal proclamation on 28 January and the new flag, with its red maple leaf and side bars, flew officially for the first time on 15 February 1965.

The Flag of Canada was raised for the first time on Parliament Hill, Ottawa.

Henderson's Goal in Moscow

Paul Henderson scored the dramatic winning goal with 34 seconds left as Canada defeated the Soviet Union 6–5 in the final game of the Summit Series.

Canada launched the world's first geostationary domestic satellite, Anik A-1

The telecommunications satellite Anik A-2 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. With its launch, Canada became the first country in the world to employ satellites for domestic communications.

Communications satellite Anik A-3 was launched.

Terry Fox began his Marathon of Hope in St. John's, NL, to raise money for cancer research. The run ended on 1 September in Thunder Bay, ON, after cancer was discovered in his lungs. Within days the marathon had raised over $10 million.

The first of two Quebec referendums is held. Initiated by the Parti Québécois, it asks Quebec voters whether or not to approve negotiations leading to the province’s sovereignty. The “No” side wins with 60 per cent support. After the failure of two constitutional accords, a second vote in 1995 narrowly approves of the province remaining in Canada, with 50.58 per cent support. In 2006, the federal government recognizes that the Québécois form a “nation” within a united Canada.

The British House of Commons passed the Canada Act of 1982. It was adopted by the House of Lords on March 25. The Act ended British legislative jurisdiction over Canada. Queen Elizabeth II signed the proclamation in Ottawa on April 17.

Charter Comes Into Effect

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms came into effect. The Charter guarantees all Canadians fundamental rights, democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, equality rights and linguistic rights.

Politics Science & Industry

Free Trade Goes Into Effect

The Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the US went into effect. The pact, later expanded through NAFTA, would profoundly alter the economic relationship between Canada and the United States.

Indigenous Peoples Politics

Meech Lake Accord Collapses

The Meech Lake Accord collapsed after the self-imposed deadline passed. The collapse owed much to Premier Clyde Wells' blockage in Newfoundland and failure to pass in Manitoba thanks to MLA Elijah Harper. It led to further constitutional wrangles and the renewal of the separatist movement in Québec.

The Oka Crisis is triggered by plans to expand a golf course and build luxury condominiums on disputed lands that include the burial grounds of the Mohawk people. A 78-day violent standoff follows between Mohawk protestors, police and the army in Oka, QC.

Sprinter Donovan Bailey established a new world record and earned himself a gold medal at the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. The victory set off an outburst of national pride in winning the glamour event of the Olympic Games.

Women's Hockey Team Wins Third Olympic Gold

Canada's women's hockey team won its third Olympic gold medal at the Vancouver Winter Olympics, defeating the US 2-0. The team was later chastised by the media for taking its victory party on to the ice after the fans had left the building.

Men's Hockey Team Wins Olympic Gold

The Canadian men's hockey team won the Olympic gold medal at the Vancouver Winter Olympics, defeating the US 3-2 in overtime when centre Sidney Crosby, assisted by Jarome Iginla, scored against the US. Crosby's goal is considered one of the greatest in the history of Canadian hockey.

Idle No More Movement Begins

Four women start Idle No More as a national (and online) movement of marches and teach-ins, raising awareness of Indigenous rights and advocating for self-determination.

Franklin Expedition Ship Discovered

The HMS Erebus, one of Sir John Franklin's expedition ships, was found submerged off the coast of King William Island . The ship was part of Sir John Franklin's 1845 expedition to find the Northwest Passage from the Atlantic Ocean to Asia.

Last Fluent Nuchatlaht Speaker Dies

Alban Michael, the last fluent speaker of the Nuchatlaht language , died in Campbell River , British Columbia , at age 89. Raised on Nootka Island, Michael spoke only Nuchatlaht until he was forced to learn English at a residential school in Tofino as a child. He nevertheless maintained his fluency in Nuchatlaht so that he could speak with his mother, who did not speak English.

The Tragically Hip’s Final Concert

Beloved Canadian rockers The Tragically Hip played their final show to a hometown crowd at the K-Rock Centre in Kingston , Ontario . It was the last stop on the band’s Man Machine Poem tour, announced in the wake of frontman Gord Downie ’s diagnosis of terminal brain cancer in December 2015. More than 11 million people — nearly a third of the Canada’s population — tuned in to the live CBC broadcast on television, radio and online. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was among the audience members present at the “national celebration,” in which the band played from its 30-year catalogue for nearly three hours. ( Se også A Place to Happen .)

A team from the Arctic Research Foundation (founded by Jim Balsillie ) announced that they had found the second lost ship of the Franklin expedition , HMS Terror , in Nunavut ’s Terror Bay, north of where the Erebus was found in 2014. The discovery was confirmed by Parks Canada on 26 September 2016.

Poet, novelist, singer and songwriter Leonard Cohen died in Los Angeles, California, at age 82. Born in Westmount , Québec , Cohen was one of the most iconic Canadian artists of the 20th century. A sage, mystic, bohemian and romantic, he built an acclaimed body of literary work and a revered career in pop music .

BC Fossils Helps Solve Evolutionary Riddle

The fossilized soft tissue of agnostids found in the 500-million-year-old Burgess Shale deposit helped researchers prove a connection between the bug-like creatures and trilobites, adding a new branch to the evolutionary tree of life.

Serial Killer Bruce McArthur Sentenced to Life in Prison

After pleading guilty to eight counts of first-degree murder, Bruce McArthur was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole for 25 years. The 67-year-old former landscaper took his victims from Toronto’s gay village, dismembered them and hid the remains in yards and planter boxes owned by his clients.

Quebec City Mosque Shooter Sentenced to Life in Prison

Alexandre Bissonnette, who shot and killed six men at a mosque in Quebec City on 29 January 2017, was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole for 40 years.

Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Released

The final report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls reveals that persistent and deliberate human rights violations are the source of Canada’s staggering rates of violence against Indigenous women, girls and LGBTQ2S people. The report gives 231 calls for justice to governments, police forces and institutions.

Andrew Scheer Resigns as CPC Leader

Following weeks of speculation and pressure from inside and outside his party, Andrew Scheer announced that he would be stepping down as leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. Scheer had been criticized for failing to win the federal election on 21 October 2019 against a Liberal Party that was weakened by scandals, such as the SNC-Lavalin affair and revelations involving Justin Trudeau’s use of blackface. Scheer said he would continue to serve as the party’s leader until a convention is held to elect his successor.

Health Canada Issues First Warning Regarding “Mysterious Pneumonia”

The Public Health Agency of Canada issued its first warning about a mysterious and deadly viral illness, which had first been reported a week prior in Wuhan, China. Dr. Theresa Tam, Canada’s chief public health officer, said, “Right now we are monitoring the situation very carefully. It is worth maintaining vigilance.” Canadian travellers to Wuhan were advised to avoid “high-risk areas” such as farms and animal markets.

Prince Harry and Meghan to “Step Back” from Royal Duties

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle announced their plans to transition out of their roles as senior members of the Royal Family. “We now plan to balance our time between the United Kingdom and North America, continuing to honour our duty to The Queen, the Commonwealth, and our patronages,” their statement read. Buckingham Palace responded with a statement explaining that “Discussions with the Duke and Duchess of Sussex are at an early stage,” and that “these are complicated issues that will take time to work through.”

First COVID-19 in Canada at Toronto’s Sunnybrook Hospital

Canada’s first case of “a new coronavirus” was reported at Sunnybrook Hospital in Toronto. The patient in question arrived in Toronto on a flight from Guangzhou, China, on 22 January, after previously being in Wuhan. Meanwhile, more than 100 Canadians were seeking the federal government’s help to leave China.


In 2018, the amount of MSW generated was 292.4 million tons. The amount of MSW recycled was 69.0 million tons and the amount composted was 24.9 million tons. About 17.7 million tons of food were managed by other methods. The amount of MSW combusted with energy recovery was 34.6 million tons, while the amount of MSW sent to landfills was 146.2 million tons. Presented below are details of these trends:

  • Over the last few decades, the generation and management of MSW has changed substantially. Generation of MSW increased (except in recession years) from 88.1 million tons in 1960 to 292.4 million tons in 2018. Generation decreased 1 percent between 2005 and 2010, followed by a rise in generation of 7 percent from 2010 to 2017. Generation rose from 268.7 million tons to 292.4 million tons in 2018, mainly as a result of EPA's inclusion of additional food management pathways.
  • The generation rate in 1960 was just 2.68 pounds per person per day. It increased to 3.66 pounds per person per day in 1980. In 2000, it reached 4.74 pounds per person per day and then decreased to 4.69 pounds per person per day in 2005. The generation rate was 4.9 pounds per person per day in 2018, an 8 percent increase from 2017. The increase from 2017 to 2018 is mainly the result of EPA's inclusion of additional wasted food management pathways.
  • Over time, recycling and composting rates have increased from just over 6 percent of MSW generated in 1960 to about 10 percent in 1980, to 16 percent in 1990, to about 29 percent in 2000, and to about 35 percent in 2017. It decreased to 32.1 percent in 2018.
  • The amount of MSW combusted with energy recovery increased from zero in 1960 to 14 percent in 1990. In 2018, it was about 12 percent.
  • Landfilling of waste has decreased from 94 percent of the amount generated in 1960 to 50 percent of the amount generated in 2018.

*MSW generation rose considerably from 2017 to 2018 mainly because EPA enhanced its food measurement methodology to more fully account for all the ways wasted food is managed throughout the food system.


World Wide Web Foundation

Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989.

Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989.

Sir Tim Berners-Lee is a British computer scientist. He was born in London, and his parents were early computer scientists, working on one of the earliest computers.

Growing up, Sir Tim was interested in trains and had a model railway in his bedroom. He recalls:

“I made some electronic gadgets to control the trains. Then I ended up getting more interested in electronics than trains. Later on, when I was in college I made a computer out of an old television set.”

After graduating from Oxford University, Berners-Lee became a software engineer at CERN, the large particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. Scientists come from all over the world to use its accelerators, but Sir Tim noticed that they were having difficulty sharing information.

“In those days, there was different information on different computers, but you had to log on to different computers to get at it. Also, sometimes you had to learn a different program on each computer. Often it was just easier to go and ask people when they were having coffee…”, Tim says.

Tim thought he saw a way to solve this problem – one that he could see could also have much broader applications. Already, millions of computers were being connected together through the fast-developing internet and Berners-Lee realised they could share information by exploiting an emerging technology called hypertext.

In March 1989, Tim laid out his vision for what would become the web in a document called “Information Management: A Proposal”. Believe it or not, Tim’s initial proposal was not immediately accepted. In fact, his boss at the time, Mike Sendall, noted the words “Vague but exciting” on the cover. The web was never an official CERN project, but Mike managed to give Tim time to work on it in September 1990. He began work using a NeXT computer, one of Steve Jobs’ early products.

Tim’s original proposal. Image: CERN

By October of 1990, Tim had written the three fundamental technologies that remain the foundation of today’s web (and which you may have seen appear on parts of your web browser):

  • HTML: HyperText Markup Language. The markup (formatting) language for the web.
  • URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. A kind of “address” that is unique and used to identify to each resource on the web. It is also commonly called a URL.
  • HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Allows for the retrieval of linked resources from across the web.

Tim also wrote the first web page editor/browser (“WorldWideWeb.app”) and the first web server (“httpd“). By the end of 1990, the first web page was served on the open internet, and in 1991, people outside of CERN were invited to join this new web community.

As the web began to grow, Tim realised that its true potential would only be unleashed if anyone, anywhere could use it without paying a fee or having to ask for permission.

He explains: “Had the technology been proprietary, and in my total control, it would probably not have taken off. You can’t propose that something be a universal space and at the same time keep control of it.”

So, Tim and others advocated to ensure that CERN would agree to make the underlying code available on a royalty-free basis, forever. This decision was announced in April 1993, and sparked a global wave of creativity, collaboration and innovation never seen before. In 2003, the companies developing new web standards committed to a Royalty Free Policy for their work. In 2014, the year we celebrated the web’s 25th birthday, almost two in five people around the world were using it.

Tim moved from CERN to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994 to found the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), an international community devoted to developing open web standards. He remains the Director of W3C to this day.

The early web community produced some revolutionary ideas that are now spreading far beyond the technology sector:

  • Decentralisation: No permission is needed from a central authority to post anything on the web, there is no central controlling node, and so no single point of failure … and no “kill switch”! This also implies freedom from indiscriminate censorship and surveillance.
  • Non-discrimination: If I pay to connect to the internet with a certain quality of service, and you pay to connect with that or a greater quality of service, then we can both communicate at the same level. This principle of equity is also known as Net Neutrality.
  • Bottom-up design: Instead of code being written and controlled by a small group of experts, it was developed in full view of everyone, encouraging maximum participation and experimentation.
  • Universality: For anyone to be able to publish anything on the web, all the computers involved have to speak the same languages to each other, no matter what different hardware people are using where they live or what cultural and political beliefs they have. In this way, the web breaks down silos while still allowing diversity to flourish.
  • Consensus: For universal standards to work, everyone had to agree to use them. Tim and others achieved this consensus by giving everyone a say in creating the standards, through a transparent, participatory process at W3C.

New permutations of these ideas are giving rise to exciting new approaches in fields as diverse as information (Open Data), politics (Open Government), scientific research (Open Access), education, and culture (Free Culture). But to date we have only scratched the surface of how these principles could change society and politics for the better.

In 2009, Sir Tim co-founded the World Wide Web Foundation with Rosemary Leith. The Web Foundation is fighting for the web we want: a web that is safe, empowering and for everyone.

Please do explore our site and our work. We hope you’ll be inspired by our vision and decide to take action. Remember, as Tim tweeted during the Olympics Opening Ceremony in 2012, “This is for Everyone”.

Important Note: This text is intended as a brief introduction to the history of the web. For a more detailed account, you might want to consider reading:


Canada daylight saving time

Nine of Canada's 10 provinces observe daylight saving time. The provinces and territories in Canada that stay on standard time all year include: Some regions of the province of British Columbia, parts of Saskatchewan, northwest Ontario and east Quebec, according to timeanddate.com. Meanwhile, Yukon made DST permanent in 2020. The locations in British Columbia that don't use DST include: Chetwynd, Creston, Dawson Creek, Fort Nelson and Fort St. John in Saskatchewan, only Creighton and Denare Beach observe DST, according to timeanddate.com.


2017 Brings New Changes to Full Retirement Age

Every worker’s dream is to enjoy a secure retirement. Social Security is here to secure today and tomorrow. Part of that commitment is ensuring you have the most up-to-date information when you make your retirement decisions.

As the bells ring in the New Year, they also bring changes for new Social Security retirement beneficiaries. Full retirement age is 66 and two months for people born 01/02/1955 through 01/01/1956. They are eligible to receive permanently reduced retirement benefits when they turn 62 in 2017.

Full retirement age is the age at which a person first becomes entitled to full (unreduced) retirement benefits. It had been 65 for many years. However, beginning with people born in 1938 that age has been gradually increasing until it reaches 67 for people born in 1960 and later.

As the full retirement age continues to increase, there are greater reductions in benefits if you claim them before you reach full retirement age. For example, if you apply for benefits in 2017 at age 62, your monthly benefit amount will be reduced nearly 26 percent.

You can find your full retirement age, along with other important information, on our website.

Some things you must remember when you’re thinking about retirement:

  1. You may start receiving Social Security benefits as early as age 62 or as late as age 70. The longer you wait, the higher your monthly benefit will be. permanently if you start them any time before full retirement age.
  2. If you die, your retirement date can affect the payment to your surviving widow or widower. If you started receiving retirement benefits before full retirement age, we cannot pay your surviving spouse their full retirement age benefit amount. We base their benefit on the amount of your reduced benefits.
  3. If you elect to receive benefits before you reach full retirement age, you should understand how continuing to work affects your benefits.

You can learn more by reading our publication, When to Start Receiving Benefits or visiting our Retirement Planner.


Se videoen: Schleich avends kalender dag 24 2017 (Oktober 2021).