Historie Podcasts

AHE 2009 Design

AHE 2009 Design


En 30-årig historie om Savannah College of Art and Design

September: Savannah College of Art and Design blev inkorporeret i staten Georgia den 29. september.

Marts: Kollegiet køber Savannah Volunteer Guard Armory, nu kendt som Poetter Hall, på Bull Street og renoverer strukturen for at huse de første klasseværelser og administration.

Juli: Den første kunstudstilling afholdes i Exhibit A Gallery in the Armory.

September: De første klasser holdes. Undervisning for et fem timers kursus var $ 300. Det er den første institution siden 1946, der har fået midlertidig tilladelse med det formål at tilbyde en bachelor i billedkunst.

Rul til bunden for at se en videos tidslinje over begivenheder

Februar: Et vægmaleri på gulvet i college 's bibliotek, designet af kunstneren Larry Connatser, debuterer.

Maj: The Historic Savannah Foundation uddeler en pris til Paula og Richard Rowan for deres støtte til fonden og deres arbejde i centrum.

August: Kollegiet modtager en gave på 10.000 bøger fra State University of New York i Fredonia. Dette var som svar på grundlægger Richard Rowan 's anmodning om donationer til det nye college -bibliotek.

November: Skuespiller, atlet og kunstner Bernie Casey åbner en måneds lang udstilling.

December: Kollegiet er godkendt til at tildele grader fra Commission on Colleges i Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

April: Den første Sidewalk-Chalk konkurrence afholdes. Den lokale kunstner Artie Milton vinder førstepladsen og $ 100.

Maj: Den første begyndelsesceremoni afholdes for en kandidat, Juli Lee, en interiørdesign -major. Hendes kreditter, der blev overført fra andre skoler, tillod hende at afslutte sin uddannelse på SCAD på mindre end fire år.

Juni/juli: Kollegiet sponsorerede sit første studieprogram uden for campus i New York City.

Oktober: Det køber en bygning på Harris Street til brug for administrative formål.

November: Solomons Pharmacy på Bull- og Charlton -gaderne lukker med, at SCAD leaser stedet fra Scottish Rite Free Masons for at åbne en bog- og kunstforsyningsbutik samt en snackstand. Apoteket lukker, men sodavandsfontænet, der er forpagtet af en anden part, sagsøger om at forblive åbent gennem lejemålets udløb.

December: Ild bryder ud i templet Scottish Rite Free Mason på anden sal. Alvorlige skader blev afværget, da en sekretærs opdagelse advarede brandvæsenet.

Februar: Forfatteren James Dickey dukker op på SCAD under fejringen af ​​Georgias dag. Den nye Georgiens udenrigsminister Max Cleland holder også en tale.

Marts: SCAD modtager en pris fra Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation for restaurering af Savannah Volunteer Guard Armory.

Maj: SCAD 's eksamen har forfatter Joyce Maynard, en æresgrad for Joan Mondale og 16 kandidater.

December: SCAD modtager akkreditering fra Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Marts: SCAD starter en fundraising -kampagne på $ 10 millioner for at hjælpe med at finansiere den mulige etablering af en kandidatskole og en arkitektskole.

Maj: Forfatter Pat Conroy er foredragsholder ved SCAD 's eksamen. Han blev også overrakt en æresdoktor i humaniora.

Januar: Statens uddannelsesråd giver tilladelse til en bachelor i billedkunst i fiberkunst og master 's i billedkunst inden for fiberkunst, illustration, maleri og grafisk design.

April: SCAD lejer Abraham 's Home for Aged Women på Broughton og East Broad gader for at konvertere til sovesal.

Juni: Savannah Zoning Board of Appeals afviser Abrahams husets ejer Linn Burnsed 's anmodning om at renovere bygningen til en kollegie til SCAD.

September: Metropolitan Planning Commission anbefaler en bekendtgørelsesændring, der gør det muligt at konvertere Abraham 's uden at få godkendelse fra zonestyrelsen. Senere skrotter Burnsed planerne på grund af forsinkelserne. Andre problemer plager planer om at konvertere en tidligere kro på Pulaski -pladsen til det nødvendige kollegieværelse.

December: Byrådet i Savannah ændrer en zoneringsforordning, der tillader kroen at blive brugt som kollegieværelse.

Maj: SCAD byder på ejendomme, der er sat til salg af Chatham-Savannah Board of Education. De omfatter den tidligere Henry St. School og det tidligere Beach Institute. Deres bud afvises som for lave.

December: Efter tidligere at have afvist sit bud, beslutter Board of Education at acceptere SCAD 's bud på Henry Street -skolen. Købsprisen var $ 100.000. Også et kommanditselskab, der havde forsøgt at udvikle det gamle fængsel i Chatham County på Habersham Street, beslutter at donere bygningen til SCAD for at forhindre nedrivning.

Maj: Skuespiller Geoffrey Holder er begyndelsestaleren. Han modtager også en æresdoktorgrad.

Sommer: Drayton Street -tankstationen erhverves med håb om at konvertere den til et kunstgalleri.

September: To studerende indgiver separate sager mod kollegiet, efter at de hævder, at de er blevet overfaldet i en af ​​kollegiets sovesal. Kollegiets advokater svarer, at Sizemore Security, der blev ansat af skolen, var i strid med dens aftale om at stille sikkerhed.

Den nyrenoverede Henry Street -skole bruges af elever for første gang.

Oktober: For første gang inviteres savannerne til at sidde i bestyrelsen. De fire er dommer Michael L. Karpf, Virginia J. Kiah, Eli Karatassos og Gordon Varnedoe.

I sikkerhedssagen nægter Sizemore ansvar og beder om at blive afvist fra sagen.

November: SCAD begynder at transportere studerende i London Transit dobbeltdækkerbusser i 1964.

December: Skolen er akkrediteret på niveau III af Commission on Colleges i Southern Association of Colleges and Schools til at tildele master- og#039 -grader og bachelor- og#039 -grader.

Maj: Kirk Varnedoe er hovedtaler ved eksamen. Æresgrader tildeles ham og instruktør/forfatter/fotograf Gordon Parks.

August: SCAD byder med succes på Barnard, Anderson og 37th Street skoler samt Beach Institute. Barnard og Anderson skoler vil være klasseværelset plads, mens 37. vil blive tilbudt til Royce Center lejefri i op til fire år. De planlægger at donere Beach Institute til King-Tisdell Cottage Foundation.

Kollegiet erhverver også den tidligere kontorbygning i Central of Georgia på West Broad Street (nu Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard.) Den får navnet Eichberg Hall efter arkitekten Alfred Eichberg og vil blive brugt til yderligere klasseværelses- og studiepladser til School of Building Arts.

November: Det tidligere fængsel i Chatham County, nu kaldet Habersham Hall, begynder livet som SCAD 's videoafdeling.

Januar: Statens senator Roy Barnes indfører lovgivning for at fjerne SCAD fra tilsynet med Georgia Department of Education. Barnes var advokatpartner for Hugh M. Dorsey III, formand for bestyrelsen for SCAD.

Royce Center flytter ind på 37th Street School.

Februar: Statsrepræsentant Dwayne Hamilton indfører en foranstaltning, der ligner Barnes ' -lovgivningen for at hjælpe med at flytte foranstaltningen videre.

Marts: Chatham Superior Court Chief Judge Frank Cheatham bestemmer, at Savannah Morning News -reporter Roseanne Howard ikke har privilegium i henhold til lovgivningen i Georgien og kan tvinges til at vidne i retssagen mod SCAD vedrørende de to studerende, der blev overfaldet.

SCAD 's anmodning om lovgivning fremsættes om året, da DOE ønsker at udvide sin jurisdiktion over gymnasier.

April: Byen anmoder om at fritage skolen for parkeringskrav, fordi der er et transportsystem på plads.

Statens appeldomstol nægter at høre Savannah Morning News ' appel af Cheathams dom.

Maj: Parkeringskontroversen rammer sit skridt, mens centrumorganisationer bekæmper anmodningen, borgmester John Rousakis går ud for det, og bychef Don Mendonsa beordrer SCAD til at overholde eksisterende forordninger, indtil problemet er løst. Skolen er også citeret for ikke at have opnået tilladelse til fem af dens bygninger i centrum. Kollegiet ansøgte om tilladelser

Juni: SCAD får belægningstilladelse til alle bygninger undtagen Barnard Street -skolen. Det har ikke den påkrævede parkering på gaden. Der appelleres, og skolen beder om dispensation. Selvom det ikke forventes, accepterer zonebestyrelsen at behandle appellen.

Juli: Byen afviser SCAD 's Barnard Street -parkeringsappel.

SCAD køber Civic Center Ramada Inn for at konvertere til en kollegie (nu Oglethorpe House). Kollegiet overtager bygningen i september.

August: Skolen køber Weis Theatre (nu Trustees ' Theatre) og Abraham 's Home ejendommen.

MPC kommer ud for at støtte SCAD 's bestræbelser på at få dispensation for parkeringskrav i Barnard Street -skolens ejendom. På trods af støtten afviser zonestyrelsen appellen.

September: Ved en 5-4 afstemning giver MPC SCAD den ønskede parkeringsvariation. Beboerne lover at fortsætte deres protester. Zoneringsnævnet godkender anmodningen en uge senere.

Den tidligere Savannah Bank -bygning i 300 -blokken West Broad Street købes for at blive renoveret til et kunstgalleri (nu Pei Lang Chan Gallery and Gardens).

Gordon Varnedoe udnævnes til vicepræsident for samfunds- og studenteranliggender.

Til ære for 10 -årsdagen donerer skolepræsident Richard Rowan $ 100.000 til biblioteket.

Oktober: SCAD mister næsten sin skattefrie status, da den undlod at indgive de nødvendige selvangivelser. Skolen overholder.

Oglethorpe Business and Professional Women ærer SCAD som årets arbejdsgiver i 1989.

MPC -godkendelse gives til at restaurere en "Streamliner" -restaurant fra 1938 på hjørnet af Henry- og Barnard -gaden.

Studerende starter en undersøgelse af Live Oak -kvarteret for at bestemme områdets historiske betydning.

November: Kollegiet kolliderer med Historic Review Board om farven på Abraham 's ejendom. Bestyrelsen havde afvist den planlagte lyserøde og blågrønne ordning.

Georgiens højesteret anfægter Savannah Morning News -privilegiekravet. Det beordrer dokumenter, der overleveres til SCAD. Howard havde forladt Morning News på dette tidspunkt.

December: Abraham 's hjemmefarver er godkendt, efter at skolen foreslår en lysere nuance af krikand.

Januar: Advokater for Morning News beder Georgiens højesteret om at genoverveje sin afgørelse.

Marts: Byen beder skolen om at fraflytte en nyttebygning på Ramada -ejendommen, da den ikke har en belægningstilladelse. Skolen accepterer at forlade og rette eventuelle problemer. Skolen søger også obligationer til at købe hotellet.

Et lovforslag, der blev vedtaget i lovgiveren i Georgien, fritager private kollegier fra statsovervågning, men de skal stadig indsende en økonomisk revision hvert år.

Maj: Kilder afslører, at SCAD er under efterforskning af IRS.

Juli: Tidligere reporter Roseanne Howard skal besvare SCAD 's spørgsmål i en afgørelse fra dommer Frank S. Cheatham.

August: Atriumbygningen på MLK Boulevard købes, efter at MPC godkender omregulering fra letindustriel til centralvirksomhed.

December: Videoafdelingen gennemgår uro, da Sony afslutter sit forhold til SCAD, efter at tre medarbejdere er blevet fyret. Desuden fyres stolen og overingeniøren fratræder.

Januar: Videostuderende overvejer at forlade, efter forholdet mellem Sony og#039s er afsluttet. Skolen forsikrer dem om, at programmet fortsætter. Eleverne er forbudt at tale med journalister efter mødet. De trækker senere helt ud af byen.

Maj: SCAD anmoder om, at retssagen anlagt af to kvindelige studerende bliver smidt ud af Georgiens højesteret.

MPC omdefinerer sovesale i et forsøg på at regulere placeringen af ​​fremtidige studieboliger i byen.

IRS -undersøgelsen afslører uoverensstemmelser mellem SCAD 's rapport om penge udbetalt til Hugh Dorsey, formand for bestyrelsen, og Dorsey 's journaler.

Juni: MPC kræver omregulering af hoteller/moteller, før de bliver kollegier, selv efter at SCAD -embedsmænd beder dem om det ikke. Bestyrelsen gjorde det, fordi kollegierne havde større indflydelse på de omkringliggende kvarterer, end de tidligere hoteller gjorde.

Juli: National Architecture Accrediting Board giver akkreditering til arkitekturprogrammet.

August: Renoveringer begynder på 522 og 528 indiske St. bygninger (nu Hamilton Hall og Savannah Cinema Post). De kommer også med et bud på to rækker forfaldne jernbaneskure bag Eichberg Hall.

November: MPC godkender regler for at stramme kontrollen med kollegies sovesale.

Efter at have fået besked i august om, at skolen kan miste sine føderale elevhjælpsprogrammer, udarbejder det amerikanske undervisningsministerium og skolen en aftale om hjælpen.

Skolen får godkendelse af sine planer for "Gray Building" -malingen (nu Kiah Hall).

Januar: SCAD køber en tom grund på hjørnet af Habersham og Oglethorpe, der skal bruges til parkering.

Det begynder udgivelsen af ​​en ugentlig avis kaldet Georgia Guardian. Det var etableret måneden før.

April: Studerende organiserer og efterlyser flere studenterrettigheder og en studenterregering. Administration embedsmænd forsøger at lægge kræfterne ned. Eleverne og nogle fakulteter mødes og beder skolen om at genkende dokumentet.

En lille eksplosion finder sted foran administrationsbygningen den 6. april.

Midt på måneden begynder eleverne at stemme om den foreslåede forfatning. Mere end 1.000 studerende stemmer, og 97 procent går ind for forfatningen. Efter afstemningen nægtes nogle elever tilmelding til det næste kvarter af timerne. De bliver nægtet, indtil undersøgelsen af ​​den tidligere eksplosion er afsluttet. Vidner oplyser, at eleverne ikke kunne være involveret. Anslået 300 elever møder op til et stævne i Forsyth Park. Studerende mødes med præsident Rowan senere på måneden, hvor han kalder det planlagte charter "en forlegenhed" og kun vil acceptere et dokument, der er helt skrevet af studerende. Fakultetsmedlemmer mødes med embedsmænd fra American Association of University Professors.

Maj: Måneden begynder med en lille gruppe elever, der afholder en protest foran skolens administrationsbygning. Demonstranterne omfatter studerende, der er blevet nægtet registrering. Tjenestemænd giver op og siger, at eleverne kan registrere sig, men skal underskrive en aftale, der siger, at de vil blive afskediget, hvis bombeandersøgelsen viser, at de var involveret.

Endnu et bombardement finder sted den 9. maj.

Fakultetsmedlemmer opfordrer også til et senat og en ny kontraktproces.

Den 22. maj får op til 12 professorer, ledere i reformbevægelsen, at vide, at de bliver fyret med virkning fra 1. juni.

Denne beslutning får eleverne til at opfordre til en boykot af begyndelsen den 30. maj. Det nyoprettede fakultets senat afviser fyringerne. Studenterprotest opfordrer til, at Rowans ' bliver fyret.

Den 28. maj eksploderer en rørbombe uden for Savannah Civic Center. SCAD's embedsmænd beslutter at aflyse eksamen.

De forsøger senere at omlægge. Studerende og fakulteter holder en "alternativ" eksamenceremoni.

Imens indkalder bestyrelsen til et møde og blokeres af nye vedtægter, de ikke havde.

Juni: På et trustees ' -møde i Atlanta fjernes tre dissidentbestyrelsesmedlemmer.

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools planlægger en efterårsundersøgelse af skolen efter al omvæltningen.

Juli: Fire professorer kommer ud til forsvar for Rowans. American Association of University Professors godkender en undersøgelse af de seneste fyringer.

August: Arkitekturprogrammet sættes på prøve.

To elever er sigtet for de tre bombeangreb: William Connor Tindal Jr. og Robert Eugene Carson II.

September: Dekanen for bygningskunst, Matthew T. Lowery, fratræder efter en strid med administrationen om, hvordan man håndterer skolens prøvetid.

Skolen køber de tidligere Central of Georgia Railroad -ejendomme ud for Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard til en urban campus. Planerne for stedet vil omfatte en opholdsstue, atletiske faciliteter, studier og kontorlokaler.

Oktober: Tindal og Carson erkender sig skyldige i at have lavet og antændt fem bomber i centrum.

Et undersøgelsesudvalg fra SACS begynder sin undersøgelse.

Fire tidligere forvaltere, redaktør Joyce Maynard, romanforfatter Pat Conroy, pensioneret pædagog Garmon Smith og psykoterapeut William Lancaster, frigiver et åbent brev, der sprænger skolens administration.

SCAD anlægger sag mod SACS -udvalget og siger, at manglen på optegnelser vil forhindre skolens mulighed for at appellere.

November: College Art Association accepterer ikke længere stillingsopslag fra SCAD på grund af akkrediteringsproblemer og undersøgelser.

December: Rowan giver et smugpremiere på Indian Street -anlægget, som skolen konverterer til et videoproduktionsanlæg.

SACS siger, at SCAD forbliver akkrediteret, men vil blive sanktioneret privat.

National Architectural Accrediting Board omstiller sin beslutning om at sætte SCAD på prøve.

Februar: SCAD anlægger en retssag på 103 millioner dollars mod School of Visual Arts, der forsøgte at etablere en filial i Savannah og påstod, at det skadede universitetets forretning og omdømme.

April: SVA reagerer på retssagen ved at beskylde SCAD for skræmmetaktik for at holde skolen ude af byen. Det rejser sag for at få sagen afvist.

Den årlige Sidewalk Arts Festival flyttes til parkeringspladsen i besøgscenteret.

Maj: SCAD ændrer retssagen til også at omfatte tidligere ansatte og præsidenten for SVA, David Rhodes. Ændringsforslaget siger også, at en sammensværgelse blev dannet i efteråret 1991 for at fjerne Rowans og ødelægge skolens ry. Ændringen indsendes igen senere på måneden med flere navne. James Rutledge, SCAD 's advokat, skriver, at han indsendte det tidligere dokument forkert. Det tilføjer også en afgift for rovdyr taktik.

Juni: Den amerikanske sammenslutning af universitetsprofessorer censurerer skolen, efter at otte fyringer blev fundet at krænke organisationens principper.

Juli: SCAD er fritaget for tilsyn af Nonpublic Postsecondary Education Commission.

August: Tre nye hovedfag tilføjes: bachelor 's og master 's grader i møbeldesign, metaller og smykker og sekventiel kunst.

September: En butiksfacade på 37 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. er købt til at huse skolens mode, metaller og smykker og fibre afdelinger.

Kollegiet fejrer 15 år. Det er gået fra 71 studerende og en bygning til mere end 2.400 studerende og 35 bygninger i brug.

Februar: SCAD får en specialeffekt-enhed: en bærbar bevægelseskontrol Super Panther Dolly.

Juli: Arkitekturprogrammet akkrediteres i fem år af National Architectural Accrediting Board.

September: Der opstår brand på Oglethorpe House sovesal. Et forkert jordet 110 volt kredsløb får skylden.

Oktober: Kollegiet modtager 1994 National Preservation Honor Award, den højeste ære for National Trust for Historic Preservation. Skolen havde tidligere modtaget 1994 Preservation Award fra Historic Savannah Foundation.

November: Skuespiller, atlet og kunstner Bernie Casey bliver formand for bestyrelsen og erstatter Hugh Dorsey, der havde været formand siden 1978.

December: Bygningen på 37 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. er opkaldt efter Nancy Briney.

Savannah Gas Company donerer en bygning ved East Broad og Broughton gader til kollegiet. Det bliver til sidst Corbin Hall, Alumni Services Karriereplanlægning og placering.

Januar: Georgiens guvernør Zell Miller erklærer den 26. januar som SCAD -dag.

Marts: Forfatter Pat Conroy fjernes fra SCAD 's $ 103 millioner konspirationssag.

April: Sidewalk Festival flytter til Forsyth Park.

Juni: SCAD tilføjer seks hovedfag, herunder en bachelor 's og master 's i arkitekturhistorie, en bachelor 's og master 's i industrielt design, en master 's i kunstuddannelse og studiekunst og en master 's i arkitektur.

Juli: SCAD -studerende og beboere finder ud af, at Elvis Presley -maleriet, der blev afsluttet den 8. april, gør Guinness Book of Records til det største maleri, der nogensinde er lavet. (Rekorden er siden blevet slået.)

Oktober: Det ledige parti på Oglethorpe Avenue og Habersham Street bliver centrum for kontroverser, når Chatham County Board of Tax Assessors ønsker, at skolen skal bruge partiet eller begynde at betale ejendomsskat af det. Skolen hævder, at den er undtaget, fordi den giver Savannah Police -ansatte mulighed for at bruge partiet.

November: SCAD modtager undtagelser for fire af sine bygninger fra Assessor Board, hvoraf tre kun bruges til opbevaring. Bestyrelsen anmoder senere om nedbrud af, hvilke ejendomme der ejes af SCAD.

December: SCAD underskriver en kontrakt om at købe den tidligere WTOC-tv-bygning på 516 Abercorn St. (nu Keys Hall, Communications and Student Media Center).

Januar: Pat Conroy 's afskedigelse fra retssagen på 103 millioner dollars stadfæstes.

Februar: Ejendoms -sagaen fortsætter, da skattevurderingsrådet godkender en ny skattefritagelse, fortsætter en anden og giver endelig en til det gamle Weis -teater.

School of Visual Arts annoncerer, at det vil forlade Savannah i slutningen af ​​1999 som en del af et udenretsligt forlig.

Nogle forlig foretages i sammensværgelsessagen, herunder afregning med tidligere vicepræsident Gordon Varnedoe.

Assessor Board nægter at give SCAD skattefri status for den tidligere WTOC-bygning, indtil skolen har afsluttet renoveringer. Fritagelsen gives i marts.

Maj: Den 16. fortovsfestival afholdes. For første gang vil der ikke være nogen almindelig offentlig konkurrence.

SCAD køber et hotel på 231 W. Boundary St. til kollegieplads (nu Weston House).

August: SCAD meddeler, at det tidligere stormagasin i Maas Brothers vil blive renoveret som skolens bibliotek.

September: SCAD får lov til at beholde sin skattefrie status på det tomme Oglethorpe/Habersham-parti, hvis det bruges af SCAD-medarbejdere, fakulteter, studerende og autoriserede besøgende. En ordentlig mærkat vil også være påkrævet.

Februar: Den tidligere Citizens Bank Building på hjørnet af Bryan og Drayton gader købes (nu Propes Hall). Det vil blive brugt til skolens forretningskontor.

April: Kollegiet planlægger at tilbyde en scenekunst -major.

Maj: I årets graduering er der Oscar -vindende skuespiller Sidney Poitier.

Februar: Det tidligere Neal-Blun-kompleks på 3515 Montgomery St. købes. Det vil huse skolens computer kunst afdeling.

En lille brand bryder ud ved Oglethorpe House. Det er hurtigt slukket.

April: Den første internationale festival afholdes.

Maj: Trustees Theatre er dedikeret med en forestilling af Tony Bennett.

Digteren Maya Angelou er begyndelsestaleren.

Oktober: Den første Savannah Film- og videofestival afholdes. Stjernerne Angela Bassett, Mykelti Williams og Wren Brown hjælper med at starte festivalen.

Skolen fejrer 20 år i Savannah.

December: SCAD bestiller 20 værker med temaet "Functional Follies". Værkerne forbliver udstillet 1. februar til 31. marts.

Marts: Præsidenten for det irske politiske parti Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams, taler på kollegiet.

April: Den nyrenoverede Maas Brothers -butik åbner som SCAD 's bibliotek.

August: Kollegiet planlægger at erstatte bankgæld med op til 55 millioner dollar i skattefrie obligationer på grund af dens hurtige vækst.

September: Skolen slutter sig til masser af andre, da den lukker ned for den forestående orkan Floyd.

Oktober: Biblioteket er opkaldt efter Jim og Lancy Jen, bygningens primære velgørere. Skolen modtager også en Downtown Achievement Award for revitalisering i centrum fra International Downtown Association.

Januar: Kollegiet søger tilladelse fra Historic Review Board 's til at bygge en kollegie på fem etager på Turner Boulevard og Fahm Street. Det vil være den første struktur bygget af kollegiet fra bunden. Bestyrelsen afviser projektet som for stort.

Februar: SCAD får godkendelse af den nye kollegie efter at have reduceret den en etage og forlænget nord- og sydfløjene.

Marts: Skolens websted vinder sølvprisen i University and College Designers Association årlige konkurrence og show.

April: Richard Rowan, præsident i 21 år, bliver kansler. Paula Rowan, provost på samme tid, bliver præsident.

Maj: SCAD -studerende Dominic Piccini bliver dræbt i et misbrugt røveri.

Skuespilleren Danny Glover er begyndelsestaleren til forårets eksamen.

September: Det virtuelle historiske Savannah -projekt lanceres.

Oktober: Eun Sun Kim, 19, en studerende på kollegiet, bliver alvorligt såret, da hun blev påkørt af en CAT -bus, mens hun var på sin cykel og slæbte 20 fod.

Paul Rowan har sin investering som præsident.

Skuespilleren Eva Marie Saint og instruktøren James Ivory modtager livstidspræmier fra SCAD under Savannah Film and Video Festival.

Verdenspremieren på "The Legend of Bagger Vance" afholdes på Trustees Theatre.

Den femårige bachelor i arkitekturuddannelse opgraderes til en master i arkitekturuddannelse af National Architectural Accrediting Board.

November: Georgia Guardian ophører med at blive offentliggjort af skolen. The Morning News overtager udgivelsen. Avisen omdøbes til The Campus Chronicle.

Kahn -bygningen på Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard er forpagtet af skolen. Det bliver til Crites Hall, der huser medie- og scenekunstprogrammet.

December: Der holdes en indvielsestjeneste for den restaurerede Raccoon Bluff African Baptist Church, en 100 år gammel struktur på øen Sapelo, som SCAD havde hjulpet med at genoprette.

Januar: Chih-Chun Chang, 28, der gik under navnet Jacob, bliver skudt og dræbt, mens han talte med sin mor i Taiwan på en betalingstelefon.

Februar: SCAD -medarbejdere hjælper med at fange en flugt fra fængslet i Chatham County.

Juni: Crites Theatre er dedikeret. Det er opkaldt efter forvalter Tom Crites.

Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation tildeler skolen Excellence in Restoration Award for sit arbejde med restaurering af den første afrikanske baptistkirke på Raccoon Bluff på Sapelo Island.

September: SCAD 's nyeste kollegie, Turner House, åbner.

December: SCAD ansætter den første direktør for campus sikkerhed, Eugene Friedman.

Marts: Den duftende have i Forsyth Park renoveres og genåbnes takket være SCAD 's samarbejdsindsats med byen, Trustees Garden Club, Junior League og Rose Society.

April: Medie- og scenekunstelever fremfører deres teaterstykke "Journeys II" på Kennedy Center American College Theatre Festival.

Juni: Sanger/danser/skuespiller Gregory Hines er begyndelsestaleren.

Lucas -teatret overlader kontrollen til SCAD. Kollegiet vil ikke eje teatret, men det vil drive det og booke forestillinger.

September: For at imødekomme voksende parkeringsbehov skal der indgås aftaler med fjerntliggende placeringer og transport indført.

Sikkerhed på Campus Inc. hævder, at SCAD ikke korrekt rapporterer campuskriminalitet. Campus -sikkerheden svarer, at fordi de ikke har en traditionel campus, kan campuskriminalitet ikke rapporteres på samme måde som andre steder.

SCAD beslutter at restaurere og drive en campus i Frankrig, Lacoste School of the Arts.

November: En planlagt udvidelse af Briney Hall modsiges af Ships of the Sea Museum, der ligger i det historiske Scarbrough House ved siden af. Skolen trækker sin oprindelige plan tilbage.

Februar: Southeast Regional Kennedy Center American College Theatre Festival er vært for skolen.

April: Turner Boulevard er lukket, når Upfreight Warehouse, en del af SCAD 's ejendom, ser ud til at være i fare for at kollapse. Kollegiet planlægger at rive strukturen.

Maj: Crites Hall evakueres på grund af en gaslækage.

Dramatiker Edward Albee taler til kandidater.

Juni: En brand, der ødelægger Churchill 's Pub, skader også nabopropes Hall.

Skolen er hædret med den første nogensinde "Renaissance Award" fra Georgia Cities Foundation, et nonprofit datterselskab af Georgia Municipal Association.

September: College Security, tidligere Campus Safety, starter en cykelpatrulje.

SCAD fejrer sit 25 -års jubilæum.

Det lancerer e-learning og fem nye majors og åbner fire nyrenoverede bygninger.

Det slutter sig til National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Council of President.

Oktober: SCAD fejrer en grundlægger 's dag.

Paula Wallace er en af ​​seks hædret af King-Tisdell Cottage Foundation for kulturel og historisk bevarelse.

Coastal Business and Education Technology Alliance tildeler SCAD den innovative anvendelse af teknologi i undervisningen med at udvikle en supportinfrastruktur for fakulteter med bærbare computere til at sætte kursusindhold på Internettet.

November: Det blev hædret af Historic Savannah Foundation for restaurering af Lai Wa Hall på 622 Drayton St.

Skolen skal stabilisere Central of Georgia Upfreight Warehouse på Turner Boulevard, før byen Savannah påbegynder et dræningsprojekt.

December: Det slutter sig til Florida Sun Conference.

Februar: Paula Wallace bliver præsident for sin nyoprettede for-profit division, SCAD Group Inc.

April: SCAD hædres af Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation for sin renovering af eksisterende bygninger til skolens brug.

Maj: Smithfield Cottage for Graduate Studies på 118 Hall St. åbner.

En koncert med George Clinton lukker jubilæumsåret op.

August: Det annoncerer planer om at åbne et campus i Atlanta og vil begynde at tilbyde klasser i 2005.

September: Skolens tilmelding overstiger den ledige kollegieplads. Kollegiet lejer Howard Johnson -hotellet på West Boundary for at imødekomme overløbet.

November: Det erhverver 85 hektar i Jasper County, SC, til et atletik- og ridecenter.

Marts: En elev skader sig selv, når han forsøger at udføre et stunt til en film.

April: Det sponsorerer en optræden af ​​forfatteren Tom Wolfe.

SCAD og Savannah State spiller "Battle of Savannah" i baseball. SSU vinder 7-2.

Maj: Filmkritiker Joel Siegel taler til afgangsklassen i 2005.

September: Filmskaberen Spike Lee holder foredrag.

Januar: Walter O. Evans donerer kunst, der anslås at være op til $ 10 millioner værd til SCAD, der skal vises. Kunsten er en del af et arrangement for at etablere afroamerikanske studier på skolen.

Februar: Der udstedes en sundhedsrådgivning, efter at en boghandler har testet positivt for tuberkulose.

SCAD fusionerer sit campus i Atlanta med Atlanta College of Art.

August: Det er vært for en udstilling af Rembrandt -raderinger.

Det omdøber Earle W. Newton Center for British and American Studies til SCAD Museum of Art.

September: Det køber de tidligere granittrin for at huse Institut for Institutionel Advancement.

November: Mændenes basketballhold fra SCAD og SSU mødes for første gang. SSU vinder 68-35.

Januar: Det danner et samarbejde med Electronic Arts om at undervise i professionel produktionspraksis for videospil.

Marts: Det er vært for en udstilling af Spider Martin-fotografering med Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum.

April: Det tilføjer kvinders lacrosse til efterårssporten. Det dropper roning.

Maj: Softballspillere og -træner hædres af Florida Sun Conference og NAIA Region XIV -priser.

Juni: En årlig gratis koncert i Forsyth Park byder på Ziggy Marley og Neville Brothers.

Baseballspilleren Ryan Pope er draftet i tredje runde af baseballudkastet.

Juli: SCAD-designede produkter udbydes til salg på Barnes & Noble.

August: Det nye fodboldkompleks i Hardeeville, S.C., åbner.

Oktober: Den årlige filmfestival hædrer Michael Douglas og familien Redgrave.

November: SCAD grad Carmen Webber is part of "Project Runway." She did not make it to the finals.

March: A fall from Turner House prompts an investigation into the structural integrity of the railings.

April: SCAD plans a dormitory complex on land at 1025 W. Gwinnett St.

May: Testing begins on the railings of Turner House to be sure another accident does not happen.

June: A second SCAD pitcher, Richard Sullivan, is drafted in the 11th round of the baseball draft.

The new dorm plan is endorsed by the MPC but City Council hesitates to approve the plans.

August: The planned dorms are presented to residents of Cloverdale and Carver Heights to alleviate concerns that the buildings will cause flooding in their neighborhood. City Manager Michael Brown recommends the council delay the vote.

It announces that men and women's basketball will be eliminated in 2009.

September: It opens the newly renovated former Richard Arnold High School as Arnold Hall, which houses the liberal arts and art history programs.

October: It restores the Mansion restaurant as a cultural and learning center for the Atlanta campus.

Founder's Day celebrates the 30th anniversary of the school.

February: It announces plans to open a campus with an estimated 300 students in September 2010 in Hong Kong.


Lake Point Tower Blog

See how Bill Hartnett, an ex-FBI agent, turned visionary developer. And how the 29 year-old architect, George Schipporeit, designed and oversaw the construction of Lake Point Tower.

Some might think of all this as a modern day fairy tale or a story of a handful of very lucky guys who were too young and too smart to accept, “You’re crazy! Who would ever live there?”

Whatever your take on the story, we’re sure you’ll enjoy reading Lake Point Tower: A Design History,ved Edward Windhorst og Kevin Harrington. Arthur Miller, archivist at Lake Forest College and author of several works on architecture, calls the book a real “page-turner:”

It’s a fine, readable, viewable, accessible book and a strong case for appreciating fully …the accomplishment, value/livability, and architectural importance of Lake Point Tower.” He further states that the book “… includes all the the essential historical and technical information in straightforward manner. Its illustrations are integral to telling that story at many points — historical, technical, and aesthetic. The players are described and shown just enough to have the story make sense: each one’s critical role. I found it engrossing and indeed a page-turner.”

The book is available now from the Chicago Architecture Foundation store for $19.95 plus tax. http://www.architecture.org/shop/shop/category.asp?catid=4.

And don’t miss the October 28, 2009, symposium, “Lake Point Tower: Back Story of an Icon.” The free public event will be held 12:15 – 1:00 p.m. at the Chicago Architecture Foundation Lecture Hall Gallery, 224 South Michigan Avenue. Featured will be Lake Point Tower architect George Schipporeit, now 76, and book authors Edward Windhorst og Kevin Harrington. Bag lunches are welcome.

Learn more about this and other exciting events on the Lake Point Tower’s 40th Anniversary web page.


Monoaminergic neurotransmission: the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today

The 1950s saw the clinical introduction of the first two specifically antidepressant drugs: iproniazid, a monoamine-oxidase inhibitor that had been used in the treatment of tuberculosis, and imipramine, the first drug in the tricyclic antidepressant family. Iproniazid and imipramine made two fundamental contributions to the development of psychiatry: one of a social-health nature, consisting in an authentic change in the psychiatric care of depressive patients and the other of a purely pharmacological nature, since these agents have constituted an indispensable research tool for neurobiology and psychopharmacology, permitting, among other things, the postulation of the first aetiopathogenic hypotheses of depressive disorders. The clinical introduction of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the late 1980s, once again revolutionized therapy for depression, opening the way for new families of antidepressants. The present work reviews, from a historical perspective, the entire process that led to the discovery of these drugs, as well as their contribution to the development of the neuroscientific disciplines. However, all of these antidepressants, like the rest of those currently available for clinical practice, share the same action mechanism, which involves the modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission at a synaptic level, so that the future of antidepressant therapy would seem to revolve around the search for extraneuronal non-aminergic mechanisms or mechanisms that modulate the intraneuronal biochemical pathways.


Serve up some awesome sauce with 2000s design nostalgia —

So, how can you work some design nostalgia into your work? Start by capturing the free, fun feeling of the decade. Steer away from the round, black and white images that define 2010s design. Go a little bit more youthful. And when it doubt, go pink.

To give your cupcake shop that 2000s feel, do this. Via Petite.M The only way to make pink better was to add glitter. Via TheBluebird The aughts made it cool to be a nerd. Via Zombijana Bones In the 2000s, we got around on skateboards. Via DZ-DESIGN.FR

And dressed the part. Via coccus Take cues from popular images and branding of the day, like this book cover references the iconic iPod silhouette ads. Via Retina99 Unless you were an emo kid, nonconforming as can be. Via MODESING

Historie

In the Fall of 2000, Gilbert Chlewicki, currently ATS/American’s division director, but back then a first semester graduate student at the University of Maryland, College Park was beginning his graduate work for a master’s degree in transportation engineering. In one of his classes, Chlewicki needed to write a term paper on any transportation related topic. Chlewicki had been drawing sketches of highways since he was in elementary school, developing many unique designs. He decided that he wanted to develop a new design and write a term paper on that design.

Chlewicki had been drawing sketches of highways since he was in elementary school, developing many unique designs.

Chlewicki thought about how some intersection designs come from interchange concepts. The most prime example is the jughandle, which is most common in New Jersey. The jughandle takes the concept of using an interchange ramp to replace a direct left at an intersection. So Chlewicki started to look at interchanges in Maryland to determine if any of them could be converted into an at-grade concept.

A unique interchange existed where I-95 meets I-695 on the northeast side of Baltimore. From any direction (the design is symmetrical on all sides), as the highway enters the interchange, a right exit is provided for the “right turns”. Then the highway crosses over or under the opposing traffic of the same highway, so that traffic is now on the left side of the road. After the crossover, a direct left exit is given for the “left turns”. The highway then crosses over or under both directions of the cross highway. It then receives the “left turns” of the cross highway from a left entrance ramp. After receiving this traffic, the highway crosses over or under the opposing highway of the same highway again to get on the right side of the road. Lastly, the highway receives the “right turns” from the cross highway.

Aerial photo of the I-695 / I-95 interchange that existed to the northeast of Baltimore, Maryland

Chlewicki wanted to see what would happen in this interchange concept if all the grade separated bridges were replaced with at-grade intersections controlled by a traffic signal. The design looked promising, but Chlewicki felt that the real test of the design would be if it was possible to guarantee green lights throughout the design once the driver received the first green light. For this design, Chlewicki determined that it would only be possible to synchronize the thru movements for each roadway and even this was only possible if the split of green time for both directions were nearly identical.

Failing to think of a location where Chlewicki thought that this at-grade design could be used, he decided to modify the design a little by “untangling” one of the roadways, so that only one of the roadways would have the crossover maneuvers. Chlewicki felt that this design was even more promising since the synchronization of the signals could be accommodated for all the movements including left turns. He decided to call this design the “criss-cross intersection”.

Having another modification from the original interchange concept, Chlewicki was curious if an additional modification could be made to convert this new design into an interchange. The modification that Chlewicki decided to make was to grade separate the intersection where the roadways would meet each other. By grade separating this intersection and adjusting the right turns from the intersection design to form ramps, Chlewicki came up with the interchange design that he called the “criss-cross interchange”. Chlewicki wrote the term paper on these two concepts.

The next semester, Chlewicki wanted to further explore these designs. His advisor suggested that while studying these designs, you might want to rename these designs to something more technical since the names sounded like the 80’s pop singer Christopher Cross made these designs. So Chlewicki renamed the intersection design the “synchronized split-phasing intersection” (SSP) since the design has features that you would see at a split-phased intersection but both sides could have the green at the same time with the benefit of synchronization additional signals. He renamed the interchange the “diverging diamond interchange” (DDI) due to the multiple diverging points throughout the interchange.

At the end of the spring semester, Chlewicki went to Seville, Spain to visit his sister who was studying there for the semester and then to tour Europe with his sisters. His last stop on his month-long tour was Paris, France. While there, he took an excursion to the Palace of Versailles. As his tour bus left the highway to get to the palace, Chlewicki noticed that they were entering his diverging diamond design. He got up in total amazement and shock. He was so happy that the concept he came up with was actually good enough to be in use, but he was a little disappointed that his idea was not original after all.

Autoroute de Normandie (Highway A13) @ Boulevard de Jardy DDI in Versailles, France

With Chlewicki confident that the theory behind these new designs was sound, it was important for him to find a test location to simulate each design to see if there were any flaws to his theory. He also wanted to see if there was a real life application in the United States. Chlewicki tested both designs with real traffic volumes at selected locations in Maryland and did a comparison with the existing design. To his amazement, both designs exceeded his expectations in terms of how well the traffic operated.

Chlewicki wrote a paper entitled “New Interchange and Intersection Designs: The Synchronized Split-Phasing Intersection and the Diverging Diamond Interchange”. He presented this paper to the 2nd Urban Street Symposium in Anaheim, California in July 2003.

Several people were impressed with the presentation while others were skeptical. One person who was impressed was Joe Bared, PhD, PE from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Bared has specialized in investigating new geometric designs at FHWA and saw potential in these designs. So Bared went back to FHWA after the conference and started to examine these designs even more.

The first study evaluated the DDI and SSP (which Bared renamed in his paper the double crossover intersection or DXI) under a high, medium, and low volume scenario. The results were even more promising. Both the DDI and DXI had significant improvements over conventional designs at high volumes. This paper came out in 2005.

A few transportation departments across the country started to discover the DDI concept and started to explore it. It appeared that the first possible DDI to be constructed in the United States was going to be in Findlay, Ohio at I-75 and US 224. It was the leading alternative until the final selection, when a different alternative was selected. It appeared that the final decision was based on safety concerns for an unproven design, which is a common fear for new designs.

Both the DDI and DXI had significant improvements over conventional designs at high volumes.

The next leading candidate for constructing a DDI was in Kansas City, Missouri at the I-435 / Front Street interchange. At the same time, FHWA wanted to study the safety aspect of the DDI, so that a diverging diamond alternative would not be rejected over safety concerns. At this point, FHWA abandoned studying the SSP further as it appeared they were concerned about the complexity of the design. For the study, they used their Highway Driving Simulator to evaluate the DDI. They used the I-435 / Front Street design as their sample interchange in the study. FHWA found that drivers were intuitively able to maneuver within the DDI and find the path to their intended destination. The biggest initial concern was wrong way movements at the crossover areas. The study showed that this concern was not warranted. FHWA was convinced that the DDI would be safer than a conventional diamond interchange.

The Kansas City DDI was anticipated to be completed in 2008 and be the first DDI in the United States. This project showed that the DDI was by far the superior alternative to any other design being considered. The traffic operations were significantly better and now they were convinced that the design would be safer. Perhaps the biggest advantage of the DDI was that the cost was significantly less than the other alternatives. The cost estimate for the DDI was about 40% less than the conventional diamond and almost 75% less than the single point urban diamond option. Unfortunately, there have been several delays that have prevented this project from being constructed.

Meanwhile, with the powerful study that was done by FHWA endorsing the safety of the DDI, more agencies were examining implementing a DDI. The design was starting to get very popular in pocket communities because of all the potential advantages. It was anyone’s guess where the first DDI might be built in the United States. The answer came as an unexpected surprise.

Aerial photo of I-44 / Kansas Expressway Diverging Diamond Interchange in Springfield, Missouri. Photo from Missouri Department of Transportation.

Don Saiko, PE, who is a project manager in the Springfield, Missouri District of MODOT, got word of the DDI concept and wanted to investigate the design in the Springfield area. He got permission to test the design at I-44 and Kansas Expressway (SR 13) which had been experiencing tremendous traffic problems and safety issues due mainly to the small left turn storage areas to the ramps. A $10 million budget was given for the construction of this project. The simulations for the design looked very promising to fix the traffic and safety problems. It was also a very cost effective solution. The DDI was only going to cost about $3 million, saving the state $7 million of the budgeted cost, which would have been the cost for a conventional diamond solution. The design was going to be able to use the existing bridge that had five lanes on the bridge with no sidewalks and convert it to a DDI with four lanes on the bridge and a very wide sidewalk in the median. Because no major construction was needed on the bridge, the construction time was only going to take 6 months instead of two years with the other options. The design plans were approved and construction started in January 2009.

Very few transportation professionals knew of this project outside of the district office until the construction was nearly complete. The project was completed on time and within budget, with the DDI configuration opening on June 21, 2009 and the ribbon cutting ceremony for the completion of the project on July 7, 2009. The DDI has been a huge success at this interchange and is arguably performing even better than the simulation models indicated. The success of this design has spurred even more agencies to examine and build the DDI. The DDI is starting to get very popular as a possible cost-effective transportation solution.

Kontakt ATS/American for an interactive presentation on the DDI, which includes more history of the design and why it is gaining popularity.


Evaluation of a novel antiplatelet agent for secondary prevention in patients with a history of atherosclerotic disease: design and rationale for the Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2 degrees P)-TIMI 50 trial

Baggrund: Thrombin potently activates platelets via interaction with the protease-activated receptor 1. SCH 530348 is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin via antagonism of the protease-activated receptor 1. Because SCH 530348 does not interfere with other pathways for hemostasis, it is possible that SCH 530348 reduces thrombosis with less increase in bleeding than do other potent antiplatelet agents.

Study design: TRA 2 degrees P-TIMI 50 is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 during long-term treatment of patients with established atherosclerotic disease receiving standard therapy (up to 27,000). Eligible patients with a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease are randomized 1:1 to SCH 530348 2.5 mg daily or matched placebo until the end of study. Randomization is stratified by the qualifying disease and planned use of a thienopyridine. The primary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or urgent coronary revascularization. The major secondary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The evaluation of long-term safety includes bleeding defined by the GUSTO and TIMI criteria. Recruitment began in September 2007. The trial will continue until 2,279 primary end points and 1,400 secondary end points are recorded with expected completion in 36 to 44 months from first enrollment.

Konklusioner: TRA 2 degrees P-TIMI 50 is evaluating whether a new approach to platelet inhibition via interruption of thrombin-mediated platelet activation reduces major cardiovascular events with a favorable safety profile in patients with established atherosclerosis.


Sacagawea

From 2000 to 2008 the eagle was part of the design on the reverse of the coin. Different designs were used every year after 2009.

The Sacagawea Dollar coin was first released for circulation on January 27, 2000 with the purpose of honoring Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition to the Pacific Ocean.

On June 1998 the Dollar Coin Design Advisory Committee, supported by members of the public, recommended creating a dollar coin with the image of Sacagawea. The final design decision was influenced by the Native American community, artists, historians, members of Congress and the public in general through e-mails, letters and phone calls. This was the first time in the history of the US Mint that the public played such an important role in choosing the final design of a coin.

The designer of the obverse of the coin was sculptor Glenna Goodcare. This side features Sacagawea with her infant son, Jean Babtiste Charbonneau, who was fifty five days old when the expedition departed Fort Mandan. Because there are no portraits of Sacagawea the designer used a Shoshone University student, Randy’L He-dow Teton, as a model of a Native Shoshone woman.

The reverse of the coin was designed by Thomas D. Rogers. It features a soaring eagle surrounded by seventeen stars representing the union members in 1804, at the start of the Lewis and Clark expedition. This design was used from 2000 until 2008. Starting in 2009 the reverse design has been changed every year and depicts different characteristics of Native American culture.

The Golden Sacagawea Dollar weights 8.1 grams, is 2mm thick and measures 26.5 mm in diameter. Its composition is 88.5% copper, 6$ zinc, 3.5% manganese and 2% nickel.

The US Mint decided to use the letter “g” in the spelling of Sacagawea, which means “bird woman” in Hidatsa. The decision was based on the fact that it is the most accepted spelling by contemporary works and on the popularity among historians. For more about the controversy of the spelling of the name of this Native American heroine click here.


A design for life

I n the official poster for the forthcoming blockbuster, Watchmen, the Smiley badge takes centre stage. The image shows The Comedian being punched out and you see the virgin Smiley a second before it receives the small "five to midnight" blood stain that is the Watchmen logo.

As anyone who has read Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons's novel will know, The Comedian's murder sets in train a sequence of events that culminates with the destruction of half of New York and a fragile world peace. In the process, the Watchmen have to confront their own contradictions and fears, their own pasts and, in some cases, their own deaths.

This dystopian story features the Smiley as a key symbol it reappears throughout the book. It works like the homicidal clown, that staple of American horror movies: a great counter-intuitive twist that pits the vapidity of everyday affirmation against an overwhelming sense of doom.

The Smiley has travelled far from its early 1960s origins, changing like a constantly mutating virus: from early-70s fad to late-80s acid house culture, from millennial txt option to serial killer signature and ubiquitous emoticon. That's quite a journey for a simple logo that began in kids' TV and corporate morale-building.

The classic Smiley arrived in the early 1970s. Within a perfect circle, there is the simplest, most childlike depiction of a happy face: two vertical, oval eyes and a large, upturned semi-circular mouth. The choice of yellow as a background colour was inspired: it's the colour of spring, the sun, a radiant, unclouded happiness.

While the origin of the design is contested, it seems that it first appeared during the early 1960s. In 1963 there was an American children's TV programme called The Funny Company, which featured a crude smiley face as a kids' club logo: it was shown on their caps, in the end titles and the final message, "Keep Smiling".

At the same time, Harvey Ball – a commercial artist in Worcester, Massachusetts – designed a simple Smiley for a local company, State Mutual Life Assurance. Noting the depressing ambience of the town (which is real, believe me, I've stayed there), State Mutual started "a friendship campaign" so that their employees would feel good when they interacted with the public and each other.

Ball was paid $45 for 10 minutes work. However, neither he nor the company copyrighted the design, which has left its precise origins open: a Seattle designer called David Stern has also claimed authorship. But the Smiley is based on such an archetypal child's doodle that it could have come out of the ether.

What is not disputed is the extent to which the Smiley took off. In September 1970 two brothers based in Philadelphia, Bernard and Murray Spain, came up with the classic Smiley design to sell novelties. Adding the words "have a nice day", the Spains shifted at least 50m Smiley badges in 1972.

And that wasn't all. There was an eruption of Smiley ephemera: coffee mugs, tea trays, stationery, earrings, keyrings, bumper stickers, bracelets etc. The fad hit the post-1960s mood: a traumatised American public turning to visual soma in order to forget the war in Vietnam and presidential meltdown.

The Smiley was the perfect feelgood symbol of a moment when 1960s ideas of freedom, hedonism and experimentation hit the American masses. The fad was so mainstream that it bypassed the iconography of post-hippy rock, which, still remaining in thrall to counter-cultural ideas, ignored such mass pablum.

It did hit the comics, though. In May 1972, Mad magazine published a Smiley cover – with the distinctive facial features of Alfred E Neuman contained in one of those yellow circles. A failed DC attempt from 1973/4 called Prez: First Teen President featured the first sinister use of the symbol in the figure of Boss Smiley, a Smiley-faced leader of an ultra-rightwing militia.

This was prescient. The Smiley presented such a fixed facade of childlike contentment that it was ripe for subversion. Evil was rendered even more sinister by this blank, expressionless face, a trigger horror image like a girl's doll with a broken eye, a prom queen (remember Carrie?) or 1950s style suburbia.

This continued in the late 1970s. If there was one thing that punk railed against, it was false consciousness. The Smiley was an icon worth mutilating, and the cover for the UK 12-inch of the Talking Heads' Psycho Killer picked up on the Taxi Driver vibe that would later inform Watchmen with an image of a distorted Smiley on the putative killer's T-shirt.

In 1979, Bob Last and Bruce Slesinger put together a collage of Californian Governor Jerry Brown and a Nuremberg-style rally to illustrate the UK Fast Records release of the Dead Kennedys' California Über Alles. Behind the podium were large red, white and black banners: in place of swastikas were large Smileys.

Written during 1985 and published in 1986, Watchmen used the Smiley as a visual metaphor for a narrative that examines guilt, failure, megalomania and compromise with a corrupt power structure. All is not well beneath the idealised superhero surface, as the novel spirals into an existential crisis of betrayal, mass extinction, the transience of human existence.

The Smiley is worn by the most corrupt and violent superhero, The Comedian. It even travels to Mars, when Jon and Laurie end up in the midst of a rock formation shaped like a Smiley. (Life followed art, as in early February 2008 it was reported that an orbiting satellite had spotted a big Smiley drawn on the face of the red planet).

Then came the explosion. In February 1988, Bomb The Bass released the first pop reference to Watchmen, using the blood-stained logo on the cover of their hit Beat Dis. Tim Simenon has used the Smiley repeatedly: in the videos for the summer '88 hit Don't Make Me Wait (and for last year's Butterfingers). In the previous month, Danny Rampling had used the Smiley in a flyer for his club Shoom. He'd got the idea from seeing the designer Barnzley at the Wag Club in a shirt covered "in a lot of smiley faces". Embedded into the second "o" in Shoom, the symbol took a few weeks to catch on, but when it did, it swept the country as the logo of acid fashion.

As acid house became acieed that year, the Smiley flip-flopped from dream symbol to harbinger of wickedness. Just as the early days of acid were beatific, so the media's initial response to this new youth cult was positive. This changed in the autumn as "smiley culture" was associated with headlines like "Evil Of Ecstasy" and "Shoot These Drug Barons", and the fad quickly subsided.

This negative association continued into the early 1990s. Mutations of the symbol were used by Nirvana (crossed-out eyes, drooling mouth) on their famous "Corporate Rock Whores" T-shirt, as well as in the 1991 Fangoria comic Evil Ernie (angry eyes, mouth with bared teeth).

During the last decade, the Smiley has become an acknowledged part of pop culture history. In the US, it's become a shorthand for the high 1970s, referenced in that great touchstone of modern history, Forrest Gump, where Tom Hanks's mud-spattered T-shirt provides the origin for the design.

Quite apart from the Watchmen associations, the Smiley is coming back in the UK as part of acid retro fashion, just in time for the 20-year revival. Coincidental to this, it has also been used as a sinister signature – left at murder sites by a US group called The Smiley Face Gang who, it is alleged, have been responsible for around 40 killings. The symbol still oscillates between Heaven and Hell.

As you might expect, the Smiley has also been surrounded by copyright controversies ever since the early 1970s when a Frenchman, Franklin Loufrani registered the trademark as Smiley World in some European countries. Wal-Mart tried to copyright the Smiley in 2006, but lost the case to Smiley World.

It has also swept the digital world via emoticons, suggesting various moods from confused to secret-telling, sarcastic to psychotic. (Naturally, the emoticon trademark has already been claimed, by the Russian company Superfone).

It may seem weird that such a bland symbol should be used to convey emotion, in such a way that creates as much distance as real empathy. But then there is something powerfully archetypal about an image of a happy face that resembles the sun. Infantilisation or greater communication, joy or horror: the Smiley can encompass everything. It pretends to be our servant, but it will rule us all.


Creep and shrinkage analysis of reinforced concrete frames by history-adjusted and shrinkage-adjusted elasticity moduli

Consideration of the time-dependent deformations due to creep and shrinkage is often necessary to ensure satisfactory behavior of complex concrete structures. The stresses and deformations of a reinforced concrete frame can be analyzed by the finite element method using time integration. However, as the full stress history prior to each time interval considered is necessary, with the increase in the number of time intervals used, the amount of computations increases dramatically. The concept of age-adjusted elasticity modulus is further explored to develop new functions for efficient evaluation of time-dependent behavior of concrete frames. The history-adjusted elasticity modulus is devised so that stage construction can be modeled more accurately. Likewise, the shrinkage-adjusted elasticity modulus is introduced to enable shrinkage analysis to be carried out using one single step. The methods can cope with frame structures built and loaded in several stages. Accurate results can be obtained by considering just a few large time intervals instead of those fine time steps used in time integration. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the new methods. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


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