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Bekæmpelse af Uckerath, 19. juni 1796

Bekæmpelse af Uckerath, 19. juni 1796

Bekæmpelse af Uckerath, 19. juni 1796

Kampen ved Uckerath (19. juni 1796) var en hårdt kæmpet, men unødvendig bagvagtsaktion udkæmpet af general Kléber under det franske tilbagetog efter deres nederlag ved Wetzler (14.-15. Juni 1796). Mens general Jourdan tog det meste af hæren af ​​Sambre-og-Meuse over Rhinen ved Neuwied, blev Kléber, med tre divisioner fra fransk venstre, sendt nordpå til Düsseldorf.

Da han nåede den stærke defensive position ved Uckerath, syd for Sieg -floden, besluttede Kléber at ignorere Jourdans ordre og tage stilling. Han var ikke klar over, at ærkehertug Charles med hele den østrigske hær gik frem mod ham, da han ikke havde fundet Jourdans bevægelse mod vest.

Kléber blev delvist reddet fra ødelæggelse af sin østrigske modstander, general Kray. I stedet for at give ærkehertug Charles en chance for at koncentrere hele sin styrke mod Kléber, besluttede Kray at angribe den franske position med sin enkelt division. Dette angreb blev drevet væk. Kléber indledte derefter et modangreb, som tvang østrigerne til at trække sig tilbage i en kort afstand, før de løb ind i stærk modstand. Kléber blev tvunget til at aflyse angrebet og trak sig tilbage til sin oprindelige position.

Den nat trak franskmændene sig tilbage over Sieg og tilbage til Düsseldorf. Ærkehertugen havde kun været tolv miles mod øst ved Altenkirchen under kampene, men havde ikke bidraget til handlingen. Begge sider hævdede sejr i forlovelsen - Kléber, fordi han havde slået det østrigske angreb og Kray, fordi franskmændene havde trukket sig tilbage natten over.

Napoleons hjemmeside | Bøger om Napoleonskrigene | Emneindeks: Napoleonskrige


Indhold

Skaberen Robert Piroshs tidlige karriere inden for film blev hovedsageligt defineret af komediefilm. Efter hans tjeneste i anden verdenskrig ændrede hans fokus sig til at fortælle historier om soldater med lavere rang. Han vandt en Oscar for sit manuskript fra 1949 Slagmark, og instruerede 1951'erne Gå efter Broke! Begge blev kendt for deres realistiske skildringer af krig, nøjagtighed og skildring af soldater, der kæmper med menneskelige sårbarheder og etiske dilemmaer. Disse faktorer var centrale for Pirosh, da han i 1961 henvendte sig til producenten Selig Seligman med en idé til en tv -serie. Hans forslag til et timelangt drama, kaldet Mænd i Combat, ville følge en lille gruppe af hvervede mænd fra deres ankomst til fastlands-Europa på D-dagen til befrielsen af ​​Paris. Seligmans Selmur Productions var fascineret, og forældrenetværket ABC bestilte en pilot. [1]

Den Pirosh-skrevne pilot, "En dag i juni", blev skudt over seks dage i december 1961. [1] Moderne avisreportater kaldte showet Bekæmp Platoon. [2] [3] En dag blev brugt til at skyde på stedet ved Trancas Strand i Malibu, som stod for Omaha Strand.

Serieleder Rick Jason og Vic Morrow var ikke imponeret over Piroshs pilot, og Morrow overvejede at forlade showet, af frygt for at det ville skade hans karriere. [1] Mellem afslutningen af ​​piloten og greenlighting en hel sæson foretog Seligman og ABC flere ændringer, herunder at droppe nogle karakterer og ændre andre. Seligman afviste også Pirosh og hentede Robert Blees til at være serieproducent. Robert Altman blev ansat til at lede, tildelt hver anden episode af den første sæson. [1]

I april 1962 meddelte ABC, at det havde hentet serien, der nu kaldes Bekæmpe!, for sin efterårs primetime -tidsplan. [4] Netværket forpligtede sig til en sæson på tredive afsnit, og sagde Bekæmpe! ville blive suppleret af et andet drama fra Anden Verdenskrig, der var planlagt til fredag ​​aften, kaldet De galante mænd.

Serien gik i produktion den 2. juni 1962 [5] og optagelserne kom i gang den 11. juni. [6] Afsnit tog typisk seks dage at filme med en blanding af lydoptagelser og kraftig brug af MGM -backlot til udendørs scener. Mange scener optaget i Hollywood Hills med udtørrede græsser, eukalyptustræer og sandjord var dog klart ulige Nordeuropa, især tydelige i farveepisoderne. Den første serie åbnede med "Forgotten Front", udsendt kl. 19.30. ET tirsdag den 2. oktober 1962. Selvom det var det første, der blev sendt, var "Forgotten Front" sjette i produktionsordren. Piloten "En dag i juni" ville blive vist som det ellevte afsnit i december. [1]

Ifølge Rick Jason, "Vores budgetter for det første år, inklusive præproduktion, produktion og efterproduktion, (det vil sige hele omkostningen ved hver negativ) var $ 127.500. I det femte år (i farver) leverede vi dem for $ 183.000. Vores tidsplaner var seks skydedage. Derfor brugte vi på en fem-dages uge en uge og en dag på at skyde et show. Her og der gik et segment til syv skydedage, og alle i frontkontorerne fik lidt nervøs. " [7]

Jason sagde om arbejdsvilkårene: "I showets første år fik Vic og jeg omklædningsrumssuiter i en bygning, der ikke var blevet renoveret i femogtyve år. Vi havde heller ingen omklædningsrum på de udendørs sæt ( Vi var taknemmelige for bare at have stole). Vic strejkede i begyndelsen af ​​det andet år, og tingene blev meget bedre. " [7]

Wesley Britton skrev: "Seriens producenter og instruktører (inklusive Robert Altman, hvis arbejde med showet omfattede 10 definerende afsnit) gik den ekstra mil for at etablere troværdighed og realisme. Dengang og nu ser seerne fotografering i filmkvalitet som i langskud meget ulig de fleste netværks -tv i perioden. De havde militære rådgivere til rådighed til at kigge over scripts og kort. Rollelisten kunne ikke barbere sig i løbet af de fem dages optagelser for at hjælpe 'skægkontinuiteten'. Bortset fra lejlighedsvis dialog, for det meste, da 'Krauts' eller 'Jerries' talte, gjorde de det på tysk. Skuespiller Robert Winston Mercy, der skrev et manuskript og spillede en række tyske officerer, fortalte mig, at uniformerne var så præcise genskabt med korrekte rør og insignier om, at han ville skabe opsigt blandt de jødiske cafeteriearbejdere, når han strøg i med sit kostume på i frokostpauserne. " [8]

Bekæmpe! havde premiere på ABC den 2. oktober 1962 og blev sendt i fem sæsoner for at blive tv's længst kørende drama fra Anden Verdenskrig. I alt Bekæmpe! sendt 152 timer lange afsnit. De første 127 afsnit, der strækker sig over fire sæsoner, blev produceret i sort og hvid. Den femte og sidste sæson producerede 25 farveepisoder. Showet blev udviklet af Robert Pirosh, der skrev pilotafsnittet. [1]

Karakter Sæson 1 Sæson 2 Sæson 3 Sæson 4 Sæson 5
2. løjtnant Gil Hanley Rick Jason
Sgt. "Chip" Saunders Vic Morrow
PFC Paul "Caje" LeMay Pierre Jalbert
Pvt./PFC William G. Kirby Jack Hogan
PFC "Littlejohn" Dick Peabody
PFC "Doc" Walton Steven Rogers
PFC "Doc" Conlan Carter
Pvt. Billy Nelson Tom Lowell
Pvt. Braddock Shecky Greene
Pvt. McCall William Bryant

Tilbagevendende tegn: Kun sæson 1 (undtagen Davis, der optrådte to gange i sæson 2)

  • Fletcher Fist som Cpl./Pvt. Brockmeyer 7 afsnit som Pvt. Kelly 3 afsnit (dræbt i tredje) som Pvt. Wayne Temple Jr. 2 afsnit (dræbt i anden)
  • Arnold Meritt som Pvt. Jerome Crown 3 afsnit
  • Dennis Robertson som Pvt. Albert Baker 7 afsnit
  • William Harlow som Pvt. Davis 5 afsnit

Inden portrætteringen af ​​Pvt. McCall, William Bryant lavede tre gæstespil i løbet af de første fire sæsoner. Gennem hele serien portrætterede Paul Busch imidlertid flere karakterer, hvoraf størstedelen var tysker. Conlan Carter (en tilflytter) blev nomineret til en Emmy i 1964 for sin fremstilling af PFC "Doc".

Størstedelen af ​​gæstestjernerne optrådte som ekstra trupmedlemmer, franske statsborgere eller tyske soldater. I den første sæson optrådte den dengang lidt kendte Ted Knight og Frank Gorshin. Andre bemærkelsesværdige gæstestjerner inkluderer:

Direktører for serien var: [1]

    (1 afsnit) (10 afsnit) (2 afsnit) (2 afsnit) (11 afsnit)
  • Alan Crosland, Jr. (6 afsnit) (1 afsnit) (3 afsnit)
  • Georg J. Fenady (6 afsnit)
  • Herman Hoffman (1 afsnit) (6 afsnit) (31 afsnit)
  • Byron Paul (1 afsnit)
  • John Peyser (27 afsnit)
  • Vic Morrow (7 afsnit) (6 afsnit)
  • Sutton Roley (15 afsnit) (pilotafsnit)

Fra Piroshs originale idé om Bekæmpe!, blev ægthed betragtet som vigtig for showet. De fleste medvirkende var veteraner fra de væbnede tjenester, hvor flere havde tjent under Anden Verdenskrig. Dick Peabody og Shecky Greene tjente i den amerikanske flåde, mens Rick Jason tjente i Army Air Corps. Vic Morrow tjente i flåden i 1947. Jack Hogan tjente som stabssergent i det amerikanske luftvåben under Koreakrigen, og Conlan Carter tjente i det amerikanske luftvåben i tiden efter Korea -krigen. Steven Rogers tjente seks måneder i den amerikanske hær. [1] Direktør Robert Altman tjente i Army Air Corps under Anden Verdenskrig og fløj mere end 50 bombemissioner som besætningsmedlem på en B-24 Liberator i det sydlige Stillehav. Morgens karakter viser ofte, hvad der ser ud til at være et USMC-cover på hans hjelm, det er faktisk et skrot fra en camouflage faldskærm, der blev brugt i D-Day invasionen.

I maj 1962, inden optagelserne til serien begyndte, lod Seligman hovedrollen (Jason, Morrow, Rogers, Jalbert og Greene) gennemgå en uges grunduddannelse på hærens infanteriuddannelsescenter i Fort Ord i det nordlige Californien. [9] "Vi gjorde alt fra at kravle under pigtråd med levende .50 kaliber maskinkugler susende over vores hoveder, til at svinge hen over en mudret dam på et reb, til at trække stiften på en levende granat og kaste den ordentligt, til at køre en forhindringsbane, ”skrev Jason senere. "Det var meget mere, end jeg havde haft til at gøre i [Anden Verdenskrig] for min egentlige grunduddannelse i Air Corps." [5]

Morrow bemærkede, at instruktørerne, der arbejdede med rollelisten i Fort Ord, havde en fælles anmodning: Ikke at opføre sig som John Wayne. "Stakkels John," sagde Morrow til en journalist. "Jeg spekulerer på, om han ved, at han næsten er et beskidt ord i hæren." [9]

Seligman bad også hæren om at tildele en teknisk rådgiver til at gennemgå og tilbyde kritik af scripts-specifikt nogen, der havde været til stede på D-Day og efterfølgende kampagner. Hæren efterkom og tildelte maj. Homer Jones. Han tjente med den 82. luftbårne 508. faldskærmsinfanteri, faldskærm i nordfrankrig på D-dag og deltog i fire kampagner. Jones havde adgang til og konfererede med Seligman, producent Robert Blees og showets forskellige instruktører og teknikere for at sikre, at showet blev iscenesat præcist. Han ville også sørge for, at showet lånte hærudstyr, der ikke kunne leveres af studiets rekvisitafdeling. [9]

Under slaget ved Hue under Vietnamkrigen forsøgte amerikanske tropper at genindtage byen, uden at have været uddannet i bykamp, ​​at bruge taktik til at angribe bygninger og rydde lokaler, de lærte af at se Bekæmpe!, angiveligt med stor effekt.

Fra februar 2020 sender Heroes & amp Icons -kanalen serien som en del af sit lineup lørdag aften.

Showet er kendt for sin realisme og karakterudvikling.

Syndikation skabte et nyt publikum og interesserede kommentatorer.

Popkulturforsker Gene Santoro har skrevet,

TVs længst kørende drama fra anden verdenskrig (1962–67) var virkelig en samling af komplekse film på 50 minutter. Saltet med kampsekvenser følger de en truppes travails fra D-Day og frem-et grusomt blik for mænd, der forsøger at redde deres menneskelighed og overleve. Melodrama, komedie og satire spiller ind, da løjtnant Hanley (Rick Jason) og sergent Saunders (Vic Morrow) fører deres mænd mod Paris. Under ordre fortsætter Hanley med at sende eller lede Saunders og hans hold på uophørlige patruljer, selvom de er døde på fødderne og altid stenografiske udskiftninger er fedtaber eller kokkes hjælpere, der er foder, og alle ved det. Nådesløsheden udhuler antihelt Saunders: til tider kan du se gravstenene i hans øjne.

De fleste af de første 32 afsnit er virkelig gode, takket være stramme scripts og kanineret retning. Serieudvikleren Robert Pirosh fik en Oscar for at skrive Slagmark: hans hårdnakkede realisme afspejles ofte i plottene.

Senere afsnit bliver uundgåeligt ujævne, selvom der er perler hele vejen igennem. Men denne tv -serie, der blev optaget på MGM -partier tilbage, da farve -tv var sjældne, forbliver usædvanlig. [10]

Wesley Britton, søn af en veteran fra Anden Verdenskrig, skrev: "Medmindre du så på Bekæmpe! i løbet af det oprindelige løb fra 1962–1967 ved du måske ikke, hvor populært og indflydelsesrig programmet var. I sin egen liga, Bekæmpe! blev passende tituleret, da der blev brugt lang tid sammen med de amerikanske soldater, der var involveret i maskingeværskampe og eksplosioner, mens lydsporet var fyldt med kamphorn og trommer i den spændende Leonard Rosenman -score. Bekæmpe! blev også kendetegnet ved sine dystre og realistiske historier, der ofte kun havde den mest minimale dialog, og som ofte kun var hurtige ordrer fra Sgt. Saunders til sin enhed, mens de var på farten. "[8]

Britton tilføjede: "De 25 afsnit af den femte og sidste sæson af Bekæmpe!, den eneste udsendelse i farver, bevarede showets høje kvalitet så veletableret i de første fire år. En stor ændring var et skifte fra MGM -studier til CBS, hvilket blandt andet betød et nyt lydhold og forskellige rekvisitter. Ydermere var farven i denne sæson især mindeværdig, da de fleste seere var vant til at se Anden Verdenskrig i sort-hvid som krigsårets nyhedsopslag. Brug af farve resulterede imidlertid i en række forskellige produktionsproblemer, såsom manglen på brugbare lageroptagelser. Men showet var ikke bare spektakulære eksplosionsfester, selvom de fleste afsnit åbnede og lukkede med voldsomme træfninger, der troværdig orkestreres af specialeffekterne. "[8]

I 1997, TV Guide rangerede afsnittet "Survival" #74 på sin liste over de 100 største afsnit. [11]

I løbet af serien løb Lancer Books ud med tre originale paperback -romaner baseret på den af ​​Harold Calin, en genreforfatter, der samtidig byggede et katalog som en af ​​forlagets grundlæggende forfattere til WWII -romaner. Titlerne er Bekæmpe! (1963), Combat !: Men Not Heroes (1963) og Combat !: No Rest for Heroes (1965). Bøgerne repræsenterer deres forfatters adaptive "optagelse" af tv -serien - en slags "alternativt historiefortællingsunivers", der lignede, hvis ikke præcis - snarere end strengt at overholde kanonistiske detaljer og kontinuitet. Det er sandsynligt, at Calin fik tilknytningskommissionen fra Lancer, før serien blev sendt, og måtte producere den første bog, der ramte tribunerne kort efter, at showet debuterede, så han kan have haft lidt mere at gå på end noget reklamemateriale og/eller et pilotscript (og serien ville ændre sig betydeligt fra piloten) og/eller en showbibel, og måtte lave de bedste gæt uden mulighed for at se en egentlig episode. I den pre-VCR-æra ville selv faktiske episoder kun have været tilgængelige for ham, mens de blev sendt, uden nogen måde at bevare dem til reference. Og under den omstændighed ville en række indbudsforfattere ligeledes skabe lignende "omtrentlige" romaner, hvis opfølgning måske forbliver i overensstemmelse med deres egen interne kontinuitet.

Interessant nok er en original roman, der mere præcist præsenterer serietonen og karaktererne - hvis forfatter klart havde haft tid til at absorbere en række udsendte episoder, før han skrev - en, der blev designet til yngre læsere: Combat!: Modangrebet af Franklin M. Davis Jr (1964, Whitman Publishing, papirmassesider, lamineret pap indbundet), som selv havde en lang og fornem militær karriere og derefter blev forfatter til krigsromaner og thrillere.

Malebøger, brætspil og videospil og hjemmemedier inspireret af showet inkluderer:


Cuprins

Începutul carierei Modificare

Kray s-a născut în orașul Késmárk din Ungaria de Sus (azi: Kežmarok, Slovacia). A urmat studii de matematică și de științe militare la Schemnitz și Viena. [3]

A fost înrolat în Armata Austriacă i 1754, la vârsta de 19 ani, a fost repartizat in Regimentul 31 Infanterie „Hallerstein“ și a luptat în Războiul de Șapte Ani. En devenit locotenent i 1758 og căpitan i 1763 i Regimentul Nadasdy. I 1778 a fost avansat de la gradul de căpitan de grenadieri la gradul de maior și mutat i Regimentul 39 Infanterie „Preysach“. După Războiul Bavarez de Succesiune a fost transferat in Regimentul 2 Infanterie Szeckler Grenz (de frontieră) cu gradul de locotenent-oberst. I 1784 blev en înăbușit Răscoala țăranilor români din Transilvania. Kray a luptat i Războiul Austro-Turc fra 1787-1791. Den 10. maj 1788 blev der sendt en superioar på 5.000 militær, som var forbundet med Osman Pazvantoğlu og Kara Mustafa Pașa, som blev transilvaniei. El a reușit capturarea fortăreței Craiova and a fost decorat pentru acest success militar la 21 decembrie 1789 cu Crucea de Cavaler al Ordinului militar Maria Terezia. I luna mai 1790 kolonelul Kray a fost avansat la gradul de general-maior și ulterior, la 9. august 1792, a fost înnobilat de împăratul Francisc I cu titlul de Freiherr "von Krajow und Topolya", primind cu această ocazie domeniul Topolya azi Bačka Topola din Serbia). [3] Rn Războiul Austro-Turc din 1787-1791 a efectuat un serviciu militar activ la Petroșani și în Pasul Vulcan. [4]

Războiul Primei Coaliții Modificare

Retras la Pesta după ce fusese constrâns să demisioneze din armată in 1791, generalul Kray a fost rechemat doi ani mai târziu pentru a comanda garda avansată a Aliaților aflați sub comanda prințului de Coburg, care a luptat în Flandra șa. S-a skelner i bătăliile de la Famars, Menin, Wissembourg, Charleroi, Fleurus și, de fapt, la aproape fiecare confruntare cu armatele Republicii Franceze din Campania din Flandra (1792-1795). [4] Kray a fost avansat la gradul de Feldmarschalleutnant (general-locotenent) la 5 martie 1796 și a servit în armata arhiducelui Carol din zona cursului inferior al Rinului. Den 19 iunie 1796, siden Bătălia de la Wetzlar, en generel redaktør af Jean-Baptiste Kléber, er en tilbagevenden til Uckerath. [5] El la învins, de asemenea, pe generalul de divizie francez Jean-Baptiste Jourdan i lupta de la Limburg din 16. septembrie 1796. A luat parte la diferite acțiuni militare, inclusiv la victoria de la Amberg (24. august 1796) lai la Bătălia de la Würzburg (3 septembrie 1796), când, in calitate de comandant de divizie, a fost in mare parte responsabil pentru victoria arhiducelui Carol al Austriei. [3] La 19 septembrie 1796 la capturat pe generalul de divizie François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, unul dintre cei mai abili și curajoși comandanți francezi ai timpului, care fusese grav rănit el a dispus transportarea cadavrului generalului în lini onoare din Regimentul 35 Husari „Bethlen“. [4] I celebra campanie din 1796, de pe Rin și Dunăre, en îndeplinit importanta sarcină de comandant de corp de armată. Med stor succes kan du finde învins i luptele de pe Lahn și de la Mainz. Maj rău, en fost overraskelser și învins de generalul francez Louis-Lazarre Hoche i Bătălia de la Neuwied fra 1797. Få en hurtig indsigt i neglijență eller kortlægge vinovat și l-a condamnat la două săptămâ. Și-a oferit demisia în semn de protest, dar i-a fost refuzată. [3]

Războiul celei de-a Doua Coaliții Modificare

Kray a primit comanda unor trupe austriece din Italia i 1799 og en recucerit câmpia Lombardiei de la francezi. El a câștigat o confruntare acerbă la Legnago pe 26 martie. Pentru victoria sa asupra francezilor i Bătălia de la Magnano din 5. april, a fost avansat la gradul de Feldzeugmeister (general-locotenent de artilerie). [4] Această victorie a forțat armata franceză să se retragă pe râul Adda. For eksempel kan du kontakte Michael von Melas for at få en forberedelse til øen Australien. I timp ce trupele de infanterie au câștigat alte două bătălii majore, Kray a coordonat cu success asediile orraelelor Peschiera del Garda og Mantova. I Bătălia de la Novi den 15. august 1799 blev et kommandat til et armé af et alcătuit for cele două divizii conduse de generalii Peter Ott og Heinrich Bellegarde. [6] La 6 noiembrie, Kray a fost învins de francezi într-o a doua confruntare la Novi Ligure. [7]

I en anul următor, som en kommandat eller armată austriacă într-o campanie militară desfășurată pe cursul superior al Rinului împotriva unei armate franceze comandate de generalul de divizie Jean Moreau. Ca urmare a înfrângerilor suferite în bătăliile de la Stockach, Messkirch, Biberach, râul Iller și Höchstädt, armata lui Kray a fost împinsă către Ulm. Du kan også udskrive en marc iscusit i jurul flancului lui Moreau, og det er en god idé at sprede Boemia. [4] După semnarea armistițiului franco-austriac la 15 iulie 1800, generalul Kray a fost eliberat de la comandă de împăratul Francisc al II-lea și a fost trecut in rezervă la 28. august. Succesorul lui Kray, arhiducele Ioan de Austria a suferit o înfrângere dezastruoasă i Bătălia de la Hohenlinden din decembrie 1800. [3]

Kray a murit la Pesta (Ungaria) la 19 ianuarie 1804. [3]

Kray a fost unul dintre cei mai buni reprezentanți ai vechii armate austriece. Din cauza faptului că făcea parte dintr-un system învechit și incapabil, din obișnuință, să-și dea seama că avusese loc o schimbare a condițiilor războiului, el a eșuat în acțiunile militare în un adversar curajos, iscusit și cavaleresc. El a fost cel care, la Altenkirchen, a avut grijă de generalul muribund Marceau (1796), iar uniformele albe ale lui Kray și ale ofițerilor săi s-au amestecat cu uniformele albastre ale francezilor in processiunea funerară a tânărului [4]


Indhold

Hånd-til-hånd kamp er den ældste kampform, man kender. Et flertal af kulturer har deres egne særlige historier relateret til tæt kamp og deres egne metoder til praksis. Pankration, som blev praktiseret i det antikke Grækenland og Rom, er et eksempel på en form, der involverede næsten alle strejker og hold, idet bid og hulning var de eneste undtagelser (selvom det er tilladt i Sparta). [2] Mange moderne varianter af kampsport, såsom boksning og brydning, blev også praktiseret historisk. Andre historiske former for tæt kamp omfatter gladiatorbrillerne i det antikke Rom og middelalderlige turneringsbegivenheder som f.eks. Jousting.

Militære organisationer har altid lært en slags ubevæbnet kamp til konditionering og som supplement til væbnet kamp. Soldater i Kina blev uddannet i ubevæbnet kamp allerede i Zhou -dynastiet (1022 fvt til 256 fvt).

På trods af store teknologiske ændringer som brugen af ​​krudt, maskingeværet i den russisk-japanske krig og skyttegravskriget under første verdenskrig, er hånd-til-hånd-kampmetoder med kniven og bajonetten fortsat almindelige i moderne militær træning, selvom vigtigheden af ​​formel træning faldt efter 1918. I 1944 blev der produceret nogle tyske rifler uden bajonetsko.

Moderne hånd-til-hånd kampteknikker Rediger

Close Quarters Combat (CQC), eller Combatives fra Anden Verdenskrig, blev stort set kodificeret af William Ewart Fairbairn og Eric Anthony Sykes. Også kendt for deres eponymous Fairbairn-Sykes kampkniv, havde Fairbairn og Sykes arbejdet i Shanghai Municipal Police of the International Settlement (1854–1943) i Shanghai i 1920'erne, bredt anerkendt som den farligste havneby i verden på grund af en tung opiumhandel drevet af organiseret kriminalitet (de kinesiske triader). CQC blev afledt af en blanding af judo, jujutsu, boksning, brydning og gadekampe.

Efter optøjerne i den tredive majs bevægelse, som resulterede i en politimassakre, blev Fairbairn anklaget for at udvikle en hjælpestrup til optøjer og aggressiv politiarbejde. Efter at have absorberet de mest passende elementer fra en række forskellige kampsportseksperter, fra Kina, Japan og andre steder, kondenserede han disse kunstarter til et praktisk kampsystem, han kaldte Defendu. Han og hans politi team fortsatte med at teste disse færdigheder på gaderne i Shanghai Fairbairn brugte selv sit kampsystem effektivt i over 2000 dokumenterede møder, herunder over 600 dødelige magtforpligtelser. [3] Formålet med hans kampsystem var simpelthen at være så brutalt effektiv som muligt. Det var også et system, der i modsætning til traditionel østlig kampsport, der krævede mange års intensiv træning, kunne fordøjes af rekrutter relativt hurtigt. Metoden inkorporerede træning i pointskydning og pistolkampteknikker samt effektiv brug af flere ad hoc -våben, såsom stole eller bordben.

Under anden verdenskrig blev Fairbairn bragt tilbage til Storbritannien, og efter at have demonstreret effektiviteten af ​​hans teknikker blev han rekrutteret til at træne de britiske kommandoer i sin kampmetode. I denne periode udvidede han sin 'Shanghai -metode' til 'Silent Killing Close Quarters Combat -metoden' til militær anvendelse. Dette blev standard kamptræning for alle britiske specialoperationer. Han designede også den banebrydende Fairbairn-Sykes kampkniv, som blev vedtaget til brug af britiske og amerikanske specialstyrker. I 1942 udgav han en lærebog til nærtstående kamptræning kaldet Bliv hård. [3] [4]

Amerikanske hærsofficerer Rex Applegate og Anthony Biddle blev undervist i Fairbairns metoder på et træningsanlæg i Skotland og vedtog programmet for uddannelse af OSS -operatører i en nyåbnet lejr nær Ontario -søen i Canada. Applegate udgav sit værk i 1943, kaldet Dræb eller Bliv Dræbt. [5] Under krigen blev der givet uddannelse til britiske kommandoer, Devil's Brigade, OSS, U.S. Army Rangers og Marine Raiders.

Andre kampsystemer designet til militær kamp blev introduceret andre steder, herunder European Unifight, sovjetisk/russisk Sambo, hær hånd-til-hånd kamp, ​​kinesisk militær Sanshou/Sanda, israelske Kapap og Krav Maga. Udbredelsen og stilen for hånd-til-hånd kamptræning ændrer sig ofte baseret på det opfattede behov. Eliteenheder som specialstyrker og kommandoenheder har en tendens til at lægge større vægt på hånd-til-hånd kamptræning.

Selvom hånd-til-hånd-kampe blev tildelt mindre betydning i store militærer efter Anden Verdenskrig, har oprørskonflikter som Vietnamkrigen, lavintensitetskonflikter og bykrig ført til, at mange hære har lagt mere vægt på denne form for kamp. Når sådanne kampe omfatter skydevåben designet til nærkampe, omtales det ofte som Close Quarters Battle (CQB) på pluton- eller truppeplan eller Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) på højere taktiske niveauer.


Indhold

Combat 18's navn forkortes ofte "C18". "18" i sit navn stammer fra initialerne til den nazistiske tyske leder Adolf Hitler: A og H er de første og ottende bogstaver i det latinske alfabet. [9]

Grundlægger Rediger

I begyndelsen af ​​1992 dannede det højreekstreme britiske nationalparti (BNP) Combat 18 som en forvaltergruppe, hvis formål var at beskytte dets begivenheder mod antifascister. [10] [9] Dets grundlæggere omfattede Charlie Sargent [9] og Harold Covington. [11]

C18 vakte hurtigt national opmærksomhed for trusler om vold mod immigranter, medlemmer af etniske minoriteter og venstreorienterede. [12] I 1992 begyndte det at udgive Redwatch magasin, der indeholdt fotografier, navne og adresser på politiske modstandere. Combat 18 er en åbenbart nynazistisk gruppe, der er dedikeret til vold og fjendtlig over for valgpolitik, og af denne grund splittede Sargent afgørende sig fra BNP i 1993. [9]

1997: mord på Christopher Castle Edit

Sargent splittede med sine tidligere C18 -kolleger over påstande om, at han var informant for de britiske sikkerhedstjenester. Den rivaliserende fraktion, ledet af Wilf "The Beast" Browning, ønskede, at Sargent skulle returnere medlemslisten til C18, mod at hans gipsværktøjer returneres og 1.000 pund. Sådan var imidlertid fjendskabet og frygten mellem dem, at et gensidigt acceptabelt mellemliggende, 28-årigt C18-medlem "Catford Chris" Castle, blev kørt til Sargents mobilhome i Harlow, Essex, af Browning, der ventede i bilen , mens Castle gik på besøg i Sargent. Han blev mødt ved døren af ​​Charlie Sargent og hans politiske medarbejder samt tidligere Skrewdriver -guitarist Martin Cross. Cross kastede et 22 cm langt blad ind i Castle's ryg. [13] Browning tog Castle til hospitalet i en taxa, men læger kunne ikke redde ham, og han døde kort tid efter ankomsten.

På trods af Sargents forsøg på at implicere Browning blev Sargent dømt for mord ved Chelmsford Crown Court året efter. Han og Cross blev idømt livsvarigt fængsel. [10] Cross forbliver i fængsel, og efter en kort periode på licens blev Sargent tilbageholdt i varetægt i weekenden den 15. november 2014. [14]

Post-Sargent-historie Rediger

Mellem 1998 og 2000 blev snesevis af Combat 18 -medlemmer i Det Forenede Kongerige og Irland anholdt på forskellige anklager under daggry -razziaer af politiet. Disse razziaer var en del af flere operationer, som blev udført af Scotland Yard i samarbejde med MI5. De anholdte omfattede Steve og Bill Sargent (Charlie Sargents brødre), David Myatt og to tjenende britiske soldater, Darren Theron (Parachute Regiment) og Carl Wilson. [15] En af dem, hvis hus blev overfaldet, var Adrian Marsden, der senere blev rådmand for British National Party (BNP). [16] Flere af de anholdte blev senere fængslet, herunder Andrew Frain (syv år) og Jason Marriner (seks år).

Nogle journalister mente, at De Hvide Ulve er en C18-splintgruppe, der påstod, at gruppen var blevet oprettet af Del O'Connor, den tidligere næstkommanderende for C18 og medlem af Skrewdriver Security. [17] Dokumentet udstedt af De Hvide Ulve, der meddelte deres dannelse, er blevet tilskrevet David Myatt, [18] hvis Praktisk guide til arisk revolution angiveligt inspireret sømbombern David Copeland, [19] [20], der blev fængslet på livstid i 2000 efter at være fundet skyldig i at have forårsaget en række bombninger i april 1999, der dræbte tre mennesker og sårede mange andre.

En gruppe, der kalder sig Racial Volunteer Force, splittede sig fra C18 i 2002, selvom den har bevaret tætte forbindelser til sin forældreorganisation. [21] Den 28. oktober 2003 foretog tyske politibetjente razziaer mod 50 ejendomme i Kiel og Flensborg, der menes at være knyttet til tyske tilhængere af gruppen. [22] Anti-Defamation League siger, at der er Combat 18 kapitler i Illinois, Florida og Texas. [23] Den 6. september 2006 anholdt det belgiske politi 20 medlemmer af Combat 18 Flanders. Fjorten af ​​dem var soldater i den belgiske hær.

C18 har længe været forbundet med loyalister i Nordirland. I juli 2008 blev "C18" malet på St. Mary's Oratory i amt Londonderry. [24] Den 18. juni 2009 blev grave, der tilhørte mange mennesker, herunder foreløbig irsk republikansk hærs sultestrejker Bobby Sands, vanhelliget med C18-graffiti. [25]

Racistiske angreb på immigranter fortsætter fra medlemmer af C18. [26] Våben, ammunition og sprængstof er blevet beslaglagt af politiet i Storbritannien og næsten alle lande, hvor C18 er aktiv. I slutningen af ​​2010 blev fem medlemmer af Combat 18 Australia (blandt dem Jacob Marshall Hort og Bradley Neil Trappitt) anklaget for et angreb på en moské i Perth, Western Australia. Several rounds were fired from a high-powered rifle into the Canning Turkish Islamic Mosque, causing over $15,000 damage.

The online forum presence of Combat 18 was officially ended at the end of November 2014, with the Combat 18 forum redirecting to a US-based nationalist video and DVD merchandising store which now owns the domain. [27]

On 6 March 2018, eight members of Combat 18 were arrested in Athens, Greece, accused of multiple attacks on immigrants and activists. They had 50 kg of ANFO in their possession. [28]

On 23 January 2020, an important day in German history, because 75 years previously, Allied forces liberated the Auschwitz concentration camp, the German Minister of Interior banned Combat 18 nationwide in Germany. More than 200 police officers carried out raids in six German states seizing mobile phones, computers, unspecified weaponry, Nazi memorabilia and propaganda material. [29]

Links with football hooliganism Edit

Members of the organisation include known football hooligans and groups. The most high-profile incident involving Combat 18 members in football came on 15 February 1995, when violence broke out in the stands at Lansdowne Road in the international friendly between Ireland and England. There was also taunting of "No Surrender to the IRA" aimed at Irish fans. The violence was so bad that the match had to be abandoned. [30]

Before the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 26 Seaburn Casuals (Sunderland AFC supporters) hooligans were arrested in a police raid after a military-issue smoke bomb was let off at a local pub after a fight with bouncers. By the end of the operation, over 60 were facing charges. Some of the Seaburn Casuals hooligans arrested in were involved with Combat 18. The operation failed when a judge ruled that CCTV footage from the pub was inadmissible as evidence. [31]

The murder of Walter Lübcke Edit

An alleged member of the German branch of Combat 18 named Stephen Ernst was the suspect in the case of the murdered local politician Walter Lübcke of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany. Ernst confessed to the crime on 25 June 2019. [32] The Federal Minister of the Interior, Horst Seehofer, then announced his intention to ban the organisation in Germany. [33]

Due to concerted efforts by Canadians on 21 June 2019, two neo-Nazi / alt-right groups were added to the Canadian terrorist list. [34] This is in part due to Canada's response to the Christchurch mosque shootings [35] and a petition to Canada's Federal Government: EPetition e-2019 by #NoPlace2Hate. This means that criminal acts by members of this group now additionally fall under Canada's Criminal Code for Terrorism [36] which can include additional prison sentences for criminal acts including financial contributions to a known terrorist organisation.

On 23 January 2020, the German government announced and enforced an order banning "Combat 18 Deutschland", the German offshoot of Combat 18. The order by the Ministry of the Interior states that "Combat 18 Deutschland" is directed against the constitutional order and that its goals and activities are contrary to criminal laws and against the idea of understanding among nations. [37] The order stipulates that the organisation be dissolved and that all assets of the organisation be seized and confiscated in addition, signs of the organisation must no longer be used and no replacement organisation may be formed. On the day of the announcement, more than 200 police officers raided the homes of the organisation's leading members. [38] According to the government, at the time of the ban the organisation had "approximately 20 members" and "an unknown number of sympathisers". [39] The Interior Ministry linked the decision to the murder of Walter Lübcke and the Halle synagogue shooting. [38] [40]

"Combat 18 Deutschland" filed suit against the ban in the Federal Administrative Court and asked the court to preliminarily enjoin the ban's enforcement pending a decision on the merits. In September 2020, the court rejected the latter request, stating that the public interest in the immediate enforcement of the ban prevailed over the organisation's interests, further noting that the challenge against the ban will likely not succeed as the court's summary examination of the merits suggests that the organisation's activities are indeed directed against the constitutional order. [41]


  • Title: [The battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17th 1775] / [painted by J. Trumbull on stone by A. Hoffy]
  • Creator(s): P.S. Duval & Co.,
  • Related Names:
       Trumbull, John, 1756-1843 , artist
       Hoffy, Alfred M., approximately 1790- , lithographer
  • Date Created/Published: [Philadelphia] : [P.S. Duval Lith.], [1840]
  • Medium: 1 print : black and gold lithograph on paper sheet 19.6 x 29.6 cm, mount 21.1 x 28.1 cm.
  • Summary: Print shows British and American soldiers in hand-to-hand combat during the Battle of Bunker Hill among the soldiers depicted are Major General Joseph Warren, Captain Thomas Gardner, Major Andrew McClary, Colonel William Prescott, Lieutenant Thomas Grovesnor with his African American slave, Colonel Israel Putnam, Rev. Samuel McClintock, Peter Salem, Major Willard Moore, and Lieutenant Colonel Moses Parker. Among the British soldiers are Major John Small, Major John Pitcairn, Lieutenant William Pitcairn, Generals William Howe and Henry Clinton, also Lieutenant Francis Lord Rawdon, and Lieutenant Colonel James Abercrombie.
  • Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-00085 (digital file from original print)
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
  • Call Number: PGA - Huddy & Duval--Battle of Bunker's Hill . (A size) [P&P]
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
  • Bemærkninger:
    • Title from item.
    • After painting by John Trumbull of the same title, now in the collection of the Yale University Art Gallery.
    • Mounted on paper from "Manufacturers and Mechanics Bank, Philadelphia".
    • Stamped on verso: "Gift Louise McDanell Browne in memory of her husband C.A. Browne, April 27, 1948. The Library of Congress".
    • Inscribed in pencil on verso: "Battle of Bunker Hill, Military Magazine".
    • Inscribed in ink on verso: "C.A. Browne".
    • Gift Louise McDanell Browne, in memory of her husband C.A. Browne 1948 April 27.
    • Forms part of: Popular graphic art print filing series (Library of Congress).
    • Published in: The United States Military Magazine. Philadelphia : Huddy and Duval, 1840.
    • Exhibited: "The Civil Rights Act of 1964 : A Long Struggle for Freedom" at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., June 2014 - June 2015.
    • Warren, Joseph,--1741-1775--Death & burial.
    • Prescott, William,--1726-1795.
    • Putnam, Israel,--1718-1790.
    • Grosvenor, Thomas,--1744-1825.
    • Macclintock, Samuel,--1732-1804.
    • Salem, Peter,--1750-1816.
    • Knowlton, Thomas,--1740-1776.
    • Parker, Moses,--1731-1775.
    • Small, John,--1726-1796.
    • Howe, William Howe,--Viscount,--1729-1814.
    • Clinton, Henry,--Sir,--1738?-1795.
    • Pitcairn, John,--1722-1775.
    • Pitcairn, William,--1711-1791.
    • Bunker Hill, Battle of, Boston, Mass., 1775.
    • Soldiers--1770-1780.
    • War casualties--1770-1780.
    • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Campaigns & battles.
    • Lithographs--1840.
    • Periodical illustrations--1840.
    • Proofs before letters--1840.
    • Popular Graphic Arts

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    • Reproduktionsnummer: LC-DIG-pga-00085 (digital file from original print)
    • Opkaldsnummer: PGA - Huddy & Duval--Battle of Bunker's Hill . (A size) [P&P]
    • Medium: 1 print : black and gold lithograph on paper sheet 19.6 x 29.6 cm, mount 21.1 x 28.1 cm.

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    • Call Number: PGA - Huddy & Duval--Battle of Bunker's Hill . (A size) [P&P]
    • Medium: 1 print : black and gold lithograph on paper sheet 19.6 x 29.6 cm, mount 21.1 x 28.1 cm.

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    Vores historie

    Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, commander of the Tennessee Militia, who eventually became the seventh U.S. president, penned those words to Pvt. David Crockett, Lt. Sam Houston and 5,000 other militiamen as they mobilized for the War of 1812. With little notice, these citizen-soldiers left their jobs and families, laying the cornerstone for Tennessee's "volunteer" tradition. The Tennessee Military Department serves a dual federal and state mission to provide the President of the United States and the Governor of Tennessee with units capable of performing their wartime missions and also supporting civil authorities during times of domestic emergencies.

    Tennessee's Early Military History

    The state's official military history dates to June 1, 1796, when Tennessee became the 16th state admitted into the Union. But its actual history reaches farther back. The first Tennessee militia was organized in 1774 in Sullivan and Carter counties (then North Carolina) to face a threat from Shawnee Indians, resulting in the battle at Point Pleasant.

    In 1780, during the American Revolution, John Sevier and Isaac Shelby, leading 240 militiamen from Sullivan and Washington counties in North Carolina (now Tennessee), joined other colonial militiamen at Sycamore Shoals.

    These "Overmountain Men" marched south to attack Maj. Patrick Ferguson's Corps, which was protecting the left flank of Lord Cornwallis' army. Known as the Battle of Kings Mountain, it was the turning point against Britain's southern campaign during the Revolution.

    Following independence, Gov. William Blount organized a territorial militia that included 14 infantry companies and a cavalry troop to protect settlers from local Indian tribes. Warfare erupted, and by the fall of 1794, Tennessee militiamen had secured the territory.

    As settlers pushed west and south toward the Tennessee River in 1812, hostilities resumed with the Creek Indians. That same year, Tennesseans also mobilized for another war with Great Britain.

    In 1813, Governor Blount immediately called for 3,500 militiamen and volunteers to avenge the Fort Mims massacre in Alabama. Five thousand answered and fought with Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. Numerous victories ensued, including the Battle of Horseshoe Bend that destroyed Creek military power.

    General Jackson and his army then secured Mobile and drove the British out of Pensacola. Next, Jackson's army hurriedly marched to New Orleans and rendezvoused with other Tennesseans to defend the city. On Jan. 8, 1815, Jackson's troops defeated a veteran British Army at the Battle of New Orleans, catapulting him to national prominence.

    But he wasn't the only Tennessee militiaman to return home a hero. In March 1818, David Crockett was elected lieutenant colonel of the 57th Regiment of Militia, furthering his political aspirations. Sam Houston became adjutant general that same year.

    During the 1830s, many Tennessee militiamen even contributed to Texas' independence. Numerous militiamen, including Crockett and his band of Tennessee Mounted Volunteers, died defending the Alamo in 1836.

    President James K. Polk, a Tennessean, requested a 2,800 volunteer-soldier quota for Tennessee in the Mexican-American War in 1846. Instead, 30,000 Tennesseans offered their services, solidifying Tennessee as the "Volunteer State."

    A lottery system determined which volunteers would serve in the newly formed 1st and 2nd Tennessee Infantry Regiments and a contingent of dragoons.

    The regiments fought at Monterey, Mexico, and during an assault on Fort Teneria, an enemy bastion guarding the city. It was here the 1st Tennessee earned the nickname, "Bloody First." Both Tennessee regiments would see combat in Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo and other battles in the Mexico City campaign.

    War Between the States

    Tennesseans served on both sides of the Civil War as well. Gov. Isham G. Harris raised the Provisional Army of Tennessee, the largest and best-organized southern force, comprised of militia units and volunteer companies.

    The forces transferred to Confederate service under the command of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and became the core of the Confederate Army in the western theater.

    In the opening days of the Civil War, the soldiers defended the northern frontier of the Confederacy along the Tennessee-Kentucky border. Tennessee was often referred to as the "Shield of the South." Tennesseans fought at every major battle in the Civil War.

    But roughly 31,000 Tennesseans, primarily from eastern Tennessee--also joined the Union Army. The state provided more soldiers to the Union cause than all other Confederate states combined.

    Reconstruction Years

    During Reconstruction, Tennessee was the first state admitted back into the Union. In March 1867, Congress abolished the state militias in all former Confederate states except Tennessee.

    State militiamen mobilized in 1867 and 1869 to monitor election sites against hostility from the Ku Klux Klan. It was also during this time that the state created 12 African-American militia companies.

    Tennessee's 45th General Assembly in 1887 established the Tennessee National Guard, as it is known today. State lawmakers set up the basic conditions under which the force would operate.

    Spanish-American War

    Tennessee was among the first states to offer her full quota of soldiers for the Spanish-American War. The equipped Tennessee Guard units were mobilized. Four regiments were created, but only the 1st and 4th Regiments deployed overseas.

    The 4th Tennessee deployed and occupied Cuba for five months. The 1st Tennessee deployed to the Philippines and fought in Manila where it helped capture Iloilo, the Philippines' second largest city. It was one of the most honored Spanish-American War volunteer regiments and the last to leave federal service.

    In 1916, nearly every Tennessee Guard unit served along the Mexican border to defend against incursions by bandits under Pancho Villa.

    1. verdenskrig

    Federalized as part of the 30th Division in World War I, Tennessee units organized as the 117th Infantry, 114th and 115th Artillery and 114th Machine Gun Battalion. The Soldiers nicknamed the 30th "Old Hickory" in honor of Andrew Jackson. (The 30th then also included Soldiers from North and South Carolina.)

    During the war, the 30th earned fame as the first to break the Hindenburg Line, hastening the end of the war. Guard soldiers in the 30th received 12 Medals of Honor (five were Tennessee Guardsmen), more than any other division in the theater.

    Following World War I, Tennessee units reverted to their original designations. In 1923, federal recognition made the 117th Infantry and 115th Artillery permanent units. Tennessee's first aircraft squadron, the 105th Air Observation Squadron, was also organized.

    anden Verdenskrig

    During World War II, the 30th Division landed in Normandy shortly after D-Day. At Saint Barthelmy near Mortain, France, the 117th Infantry defended against Adolf Hitler's 1st SS Panzer Division, preventing the Germans from driving to the Sea at Avranches and splitting the 1st and 3rd Allied Armies.

    The regiment received two presidential unit citations. Three top German generals stated that this was one of two critical engagements that led to the defeat of Germany in the west. The German High Command regarded the 30th as "Roosevelt's Shock Troops."

    Next, the 30th broke through the Siegfried Line with the 117th Infantry to become the first unit in the entire XIX Corps to capture its objectives. It earned three more presidential unit citations over a two-week period. Tennessee’s regiment also made a stand at Stavelot, Belgium, during the Battle of the Bulge, once again defeating Hitler's 1st SS Panzer Division.

    The 117th Infantry Regiment, primarily Tennessee Guardsmen, received five presidential unit citations by the end of the war, making it one of the most decorated Army infantry regiments.

    During the Korean War, Tennessee mobilized 11 units, with four seeing combat in Korea. The 196th Field Artillery Battalion received a presidential unit citation for helping to repulse the massive Chinese invasion in 1951.

    In 1954, Tennessee and North Carolina agreed to split the 30th Infantry Division, each state maintaining its own division.

    As a result, Tennessee organized the 30th Armored "Volunteer" Division. The unit served with distinction until 1973 when it was converted into the 30th Armored Brigade.

    The first use of Guard troops to enforce school integration occurred in Clinton, Tennessee, in September 1956. The Ku Klux Klan rallied in Clinton to maintain the segregation of a local school, but Gov. Frank Clement enforced the new integration laws.

    In 1968, many units from the 30th Armored Division quelled riots in Memphis and Nashville after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King. Many Tennessee Guardsmen also volunteered to serve with the active-component in Vietnam.

    More than 3,600 Tennessee Guardsmen responded to Operations Desert Shield and Storm. The 196th Field Artillery Brigade (including the 1st Battalion, 181st Field Artillery) was one of only two Army Guard combat units to see actual combat. The Tennessee Air Guard deployed six units and the Army deployed 17 during the conflict. A few days prior to G-Day, Tennessee’s 212th Engineer Company, attached to the 101st Airborne Division, broke through the border berm into enemy territory, building a six-lane road.

    The unit traversed six miles before the ground war began, becoming the first unit of the 101st into Iraq and one of the first U.S. units to breach the Iraqi defensive zones.

    Global War on Terrorism

    On September 11, 2001, National Guard units responded quickly to secure Tennessee. Following the attack, soldiers and airmen secured local armories, patrolled the state capitol and six major airports.

    In March 2003, Tennesseans were some of the first units to cross into Iraq. The 730th Quartermaster Company fought alongside the forward elements of the 3rd Infantry Division. The 267th Military Police Company and C Company, 46th Engineer Battalion, forged ahead in the first days of the war to establish Camp Bucca, the theater internment facility.

    Since 2001, nearly 28,000 Tennesseans have deployed for the war on terror. Back home, more than 1,200 Tennessee Guardsmen responded in the first days of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to provide humanitarian relief. Soldiers secured damaged areas, provided humanitarian assistance and conducted rescue operations. From Kings Mountain to the war on terror, the Tennessee National Guard has given true meaning to the Volunteer State.


    TILMELD NU News 2 Breaking News

    NASHVILLE, Tenn. (WKRN) — Human trafficking is a multi-billion-dollar business, and it’s on the rise in Tennessee, according to law enforcement.

    Maury County District Attorney Brent Cooper said the crime may be hidden in plain sight.

    “You worry that there are victims out there that we’re passing on the sidewalk and don’t even know,” Cooper said.

    The crime often happens through two avenues. In “boyfriending” victims are groomed to believe their trafficker is a legitimate love interest.

    In the familial approach, family members traffic each other for profit.

    “It’s something as a parent, I constantly worry about,” Cooper said.

    The DA is all too familiar with cases like this. It is shocking to many to learn traffickers and clients come from all walks of life.

    “You picture them as these real thuggish looking people, gang members or something like that,” Cooper said, “It could be the actual family members of the child.”

    Cooper pointed to social media as a gateway for young children becoming more involved than ever. By the time teens wake up and realize they are being trafficked, it’s often too late.

    “You had a teenage girl, she was being sexually abused by multiple people,” Cooper remembered, “It was being videod, they were sharing those videos with other pedophiles online.”

    Investigators busted the group after finding the images on social media. At least one of the victims pictured was identified by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

    The average age of those who do make it out of human trafficking is 27 years old.

    “It is more pervasive than anyone would believe or imagine,” Rest Stop Ministries Founder Rondy Smith said.

    Rest Stop is the first of its kind in Tennessee, providing a home for adult women recovering from trauma.

    “If you will come and do the hard work of healing, we will take care of your every need for two full years,” Smith promised.

    Graduates learn life skills, including how to run a household and earn a living wage.

    On average, Rest Stop removes nearly $2 million in profit from the multi-billion dollar trafficking industry.

    “I want to be able to say to anyone listening, ‘There’s a way out,’” Smith said, “The Tennessee Human Trafficking Hotline will help get you out. There are people like Rest Stop Ministries who are standing by waiting to serve you and help you restore.”

    If you are being trafficked or know someone who is, call Tennessee’s Human Trafficking Hotline at 1-855-558-6484.

    Copyright 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. Dette materiale må ikke udgives, udsendes, omskrives eller redistribueres.


    21 Of The Most Epic Combat Beatdowns From US Military History

    Unsurprisingly, there&aposs a long, proud tradition in the U.S. military of beating down adversaries with whatever you have on hand in those extreme moments when it&aposs called for. Whether it&aposs with an E-tool, a rifle butt, or just your mitts, there&aposs nothing that screams dedication like bludgeoning the e

    Unsurprisingly, there’s a long, proud tradition in the U.S. military of beating down adversaries with whatever you have on hand in those extreme moments when it’s called for. Whether it’s with an E-tool, a rifle butt, or just your mitts, there’s nothing that screams dedication like bludgeoning the enemy to death.

    Here are some of our favorites, with thanks to Military Times’ Hall of Valor.

    Navy Corpsman Fred Henry McGuire

    Dato: September 24, 1911

    Mission: Moro rebellion, Philippines

    Weapon of choice: His spent rifle

    What’s the deal? Part of a shore party deployed to an island in the Philippines a decade after the U.S. war there, McGuire defended his wounded colleagues amid a sudden attack by 20 ethnic Moros until reinforcements arrived.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “After emptying his rifle into the attackers, he closed in with rifle, using it as a club to wage fierce battle until his comrades arrived on the field, when he rallied to the aid of his dying leader and other wounded.”

    Marine Maj. Smedley Darlington Butler

    Marine Maj. Smedley Darlington Butler

    Mission: U.S. occupation of Haiti

    Weapon of choice: His bare hands

    What’s the deal? The son of a well-connected former U.S. congressman, as well as an anti-war crusader later in life, Smedley Butler is one of two Marines who received two Medals of Honor — including this one, earned in Haiti, for getting grabby in an assault on Fort Riviere.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Reaching the fort on the southern side where there was a small opening in the wall, Major Butler gave the signal to attack and Marines from the 15th Company poured through the breach, engaged the Cacos in hand-to-hand combat, took the bastion and crushed the Caco resistance.”

    Army Pvts. Jerome Buschmann, William F. Rockwell, John C. Rockwell, Alfred Shimanoski, and Watzlaw Viniarsky

    Weapon of choice: Their mitts

    What’s the deal? The five privates, all from Company G, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Division, American Expeditionary Forces, all picked up Distinguished Service Crosses during World War I for beating the living daylights out of a detachment of 60 German soldiers.

    Tell me more: From their citation: The men distinguished themselves by “attacking a party of more than 60 Germans and, in an intense and desperate hand-to-hand fight, succeeded in killing 22 men and capturing 40 men and five machine-guns.”

    Army Sgt. Troy McGill

    Weapon of choice: His spent rifle

    What’s the deal? McGill’s eight-man squad was pinned down in a fortification on Papua New Guinea’s Los Negros Island amid “a furious attack by approximately 200 drink-crazed enemy troops,” leaving only McGill and one other soldier standing under heavy machine-gun fire. Cut off from his fellow troops, McGill ordered the other soldier to retreat before holding his ground to the death.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Courageously resolved to hold his position at all cost, he fired his weapon until it ceased to function. Then, with the enemy only five yards away, he charged from his foxhole in the face of certain death and clubbed the enemy with his rifle in hand-to-hand combat until he was killed.”

    Marine Corps Platoon Sgt. James P. Whalen

    Weapon of choice: His E-tool and an enemy saber

    What’s the deal? When his rifle suddenly failed during a firefight with Japanese forces on the Mariana Islands, Whalen used his E-tool to hold off a gaggle of charging Japanese soldiers wielding swords.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Bravely swinging his shovel he almost decapitated the first Japanese thereby temporarily disorganizing the group and giving his comrades time to organize effective gun fire which killed the entire enemy group.”

    Army Sgt. Harold O. Messerschmidt

    Army Sgt. Harold O. Messerschmidt

    Weapon of choice: His spent submachine gun

    What’s the deal? Wounded by automatic fire while supporting his unit in France, Messerschmidt spent the last moments of his life braining angry Germans with his submachine gun.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Virtually surrounded by a frenzied foe and all of his squad now casualties, he elected to fight alone, using his empty submachine gun as a bludgeon against his assailants. Spotting one of the enemy about to kill a wounded comrade, he felled the German with a blow of his weapon. Seeing friendly reinforcements running up the hill, he continued furiously to wield his empty gun against the foe in a new attack, and it was thus that he made the supreme sacrifice.”

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Warren Nilchee

    Weapon of choice: His bare hands

    What’s the deal? While on a mission protecting an enemy flank during operations in Luxembourg to repel the German military’s final counteroffensive, Nilchee’s squad spent four hours clearing an entire building. When he ran out of ammo and hand grenades, Nilchee turned to his fists, earning a Silver Star.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Finally forced to withdraw to a building after carrying three wounded men to the building with him, Private First Class Nilchee refused to retreat further and doggedly fought from room to room using hand grenades, bayonet, and captured weapons against the numerically superior enemy. After four hours of savage hand-to-hand combat, twenty-five Germans surrendered to the remaining eight Americans, five of whom were wounded.”

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Bobbie L. Merrill

    Weapon of choice: His E-tool and an enemy saber

    What’s the deal? Merrill was awarded his Distinguished Service Cross for protecting a critical defensive position in the Ryukyu Islands in Japan from multiple enemy assaults, using his E-tool to commandeer a Japanese officer’s katana.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “When with mounting intensity the enemy attacked for the third time, he emptied his pistol into the charging forces, and grasping an entrenching tool, attacked and killed a Japanese officer. Seizing the dead man’s saber, he turned upon another enemy officer and engaged him in a violent duel, finally killing him.”

    Army Sgt. John R. McKinney

    Weapon of choice: His spent rifle

    What’s the deal? With a machine gun nest rendered inoperable at a strategic outpost in the Philippines, McKinney resorted to using his rifle butt to beat down Japanese soldiers between reloads, earning the Medal of Honor.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Leaping into the emplacement, he shot seven of them at point blank range and killed three more with his rifle but … He warily changed position, secured more ammunition, and reloading repeatedly, cut down waves of the fanatical enemy with devastating fire or clubbed them to death in hand-to-hand combat.”

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Jack Glennon Hanson

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Jack Glennon Hanson

    Weapon of choice: His empty pistol and a machete

    What’s the deal? Hanson earned a Medal of Honor for making an extremely bloody last stand to allow his fellow soldiers to escape and regroup, expending all of his ammo and fighting until last breath.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “After the 1st Platoon reorganized, counterattacked, and re-secured its original positions at approximately 0530 hours, Private First Class Hanson’s body was found lying in front of his emplacement, his machinegun ammunition expended, his empty pistol in his right hand, and a machete with blood on the blade in his left hand, and approximately 22 enemy dead lay in the wake of his action.”

    Army 1st. Lt. Wiley McGarity

    Weapon of choice: His E-tool

    What’s the deal? After coming under attack while defending a strategic hill, McGarity resorted to his entrenching tool after he ran out of ammo and grenades.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Seizing a trenching tool, he closed in hand-to-hand combat, killing two more hostile soldiers. Maintaining his magnificent stand, he inflicted such sweeping destruction that the enemy broke off the engagement.’

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Anthony T. Kaho’ohanohano

    Weapon of choice: His E-tool

    What’s the deal? On the same day as McGarity’s last stand, Hawaiian-born Kaho’ohanohano earned a Medal of Honor by throwing himself upon enemy forces after he ran out of ammo protecting the defensive positions of nearby U.S. troops.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Coming upon Private Kahoohanohano’s position, the friendly troops found eleven enemy soldiers lying dead before it and two in the emplacement itself, beaten to death with an entrenching shovel.”

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Melvin Louis Brown

    Weapon of choice: His E-tool

    What’s the deal? Brown earned his Medal of Honor by playing a one-man game of E-tool Whack-A-Mole while perched atop a 50-foot wall.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “The attackers continued to assault his position and Private First Class Brown weaponless, drew his entrenching tool from his pack and calmly waited until they one-by-one peered over the wall, delivering each a crushing blow upon the head. Knocking ten or twelve enemy from the wall, his daring action so inspired his platoon that they repelled the attack and held their position.”

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Herbert K. Pililaau

    Army Pvt. 1st Class Herbert K. Pililaau

    Weapon of choice: His trench knife and mitts

    What’s the deal? After expending all his ammo and grenades while staying behind to cover his squad’s withdrawal, Pililaau faced down a wave of enemy troops with little more than his trench knife and his fists, holding a key terrain feature until his unit could regroup.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Closed with the foe in hand-to-hand combat, courageously fighting with his trench knife and bare fists until finally overcome and mortally wounded. When the position was subsequently retaken, more than 40 enemy dead were counted in the area he had so valiantly defended.”

    Army Capt. Otis H. Ashley III

    Weapon of choice: His spent rifle

    What’s the deal? Severely wounded after an ambush on his jeep, Ashley earned a Silver Star for beating an enemy fighter so hard with his spent rifle he collapsed from exertion.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Another enemy soldier then rushed him and, after struggling to a standing position, Captain Ashley struck his assailant repeatedly with the now-empty rifle until the exertion and his multiple wounds caused him to pass out. When he regained consciousness Captain Ashley was being dragged away by another enemy.”

    Army Spc. (4th Class) Ronald E. Meadows

    Weapon of choice: His bare hands

    What’s the deal? Finding himself disarmed by two enemy soldiers with anti-tank rockets after killing one of their comrades, Meadows earned a Silver Star for using his bare hands to wrangle an escape.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “Displaying exceptional proficiency in the art of hand-to-hand combat, Specialist Meadows engaged both assailants with his waning strength and knocked them to the ground. Scrambling out of the trench, he rapidly directed reinforcements into the enemy positions, insuring their destruction.”

    Army Capt. Robert G. Mayor

    Weapon of choice: His spent rifle

    What’s the deal? Mayor earned a Distinguished Service Cross while leading a reconnaissance-in-force operation in the enemy-infiltrated mountains, resorting to using his spent rifle as a club.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “After the perimeter troops had unleashed a barrage on the invaders, the command group engaged the fleeing enemy soldiers at close range. Captain Mayor shot one hostile soldier and used his empty rifle to bludgeon another to death.”

    Army Maj. Richard Dennis Ator

    Army Maj. Richard Dennis Ator

    Weapon of choice: His spent grenade launcher

    What’s the deal? After Ator’s district HQ came under heavy mortar bombardment, the major engaged advancing enemy troops with a grenade launcher until he exhausted his ammunition.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “He continued his courageous defense using his weapon as a club, and blunted the enemy’s main attack until he was mortally wounded.”

    Army Spc. Joseph E. Gibson

    Mission: Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Weapon of choice: His bare hands

    What’s the deal? While clearing a field on patrol with the 75th Ranger Regiment, Gibson literally stepped on terrorist concealed under tall grass in a ditch. After disarming the terrorist, Gibson wrestled him to the ground, only to find his charge reaching for the detonator of a suicide vest. Left with no other choice, he beat down the target before he could detonate the thing.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “The terrorist screamed ‘Bomb!’ in English. As Specialist Gibson worked to stop the terrorist from detonating his vest, the terrorist had maneuvered into a position that was cutting off his circulation. Specialist Gibson, in an effort to save himself, began to hit the terrorist as hard as he could. His blows rendered the terrorist unconscious.”

    Army Master Sgt. Anthony S. Pryor

    Mission: Operation Enduring Freedom

    Weapon of choice: His bare hands

    What’s the deal? In the first citation for hand-to-hand in the Global War on Terror, this Green Beret braved automatic fire during a nighttime firefight in Afghanistan, killing four militants — including one with his bare hands.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “He single-handedly killed four enemy personnel at close range including one enemy fighter in hand-to-hand combat. Master Sergeant Pryor sustained a dislocated shoulder during the struggle, but continued to fight and lead his men.”

    Marine Cpl. Clifford M. Wooldridge

    Marine Cpl. Clifford M. Wooldridge

    Mission: Operation Enduring Freedom

    Weapon of choice: An enemy’s machine gun

    What’s the deal? During a mission to foil an enemy ambush, Wooldridge disarmed a militant and beat him to death with his own weapon, earning himself a Navy Cross.

    Tell me more: From the citation: “As he crouched back behind the wall to reload, he saw the barrel of an enemy machine gun appear from around the wall. Without hesitation, he dropped his empty weapon and seized the machine gun barrel. He overwhelmed the enemy fighter in hand-to-hand combat, killing him with several blows to the head with the enemy’s own machine gun.”

    “The greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy,” Genghis Khan reportedly said before his death, “to drive him before you, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to see those who love him shrouded in tears, and to gather into your bosom his wives and daughters.”

    If any update to Khan’s missive on victory is fit for the post-9/11 era, it has to be this Facebook gem.

    Jared Kelleris the executive editor of Task & Purpose. His writing has appeared in Aeon, the Los Angeles Review of Books, the New Republic, Pacific Standard, Smithsonian, and The Washington Post, among other publications. Kontakt forfatteren her.