Historie Podcasts

The Candaces of Meroe Tidslinje

The Candaces of Meroe Tidslinje

  • c. 284 f.Kr. - ca. 314 e.Kr.

    Kongelige kvinder kendt som Candaces er indflydelsesrige eller regerer direkte i Meroe. .

  • c. 170 f.Kr. - ca. 314 e.Kr.

    Kvindelige monarker kendt som Candeas of Meroe regerer ofte uafhængigt i Meroe.

  • c. 170 f.Kr.

    Shanakdakhete, Candace of Meroe, leder hære i kamp. 40 f.Kr. - ca. 10 f.Kr.

    Amanirenas, Candace of Meroe, regerer; indgår gunstig fred med Rom.

  • c. 10 f.Kr. - ca. 1 CE

    Amanishakheto, Candace of Meroe, hersker.

  • c. 1 CE - c. 25 CE

    Amanitore, Candace of Meroe, hersker over den mest velstående æra i sidstnævnte kongerige Kush.

  • c. 25 CE - c. 41 CE

    Amantitere, Candace of Meroe, regerer; højst sandsynligt Candace nævnt i den bibelske Apostelgerninger.

  • c. 62 CE - c. 85 CE

    Amanikhatashan, Candace of Meroe, hersker. 266 CE - c. 283 e.Kr.

    Maleqorobar, Candace of Meroe, hersker.

  • c. 306 CE - c. 314 e.Kr.

    Lahideamani, Candace of Meroe, hersker.


Meroes stearinlys

Candeas of Meroe var dronningerne i kongeriget Kushwho, der regerede fra byen Meroec. 284 fvt. 314 CE - hvoraf et antal regerede uafhængigt c. 170 fvt. 314 CE - i det, der nu er Sudan. Titlen Candace er den latiniserede version af udtrykket Kentake eller Kandake i Meroitic og kan betyde “Queen Regent ” eller “Queen Mother ”, men kan også betyde “Royal Woman ”. Selvom udtrykket tilsyneladende oprindeligt har refereret til kongens mor, fra ca. 170 fvt blev det også brugt til at udpege en kvindelig monark, der regerede uafhængigt.

Dronningerne, der udgjorde Candoes of Meroe, var følgende:

  • Shanakdakhete (ca. 170 f.Kr.)
  • Amanirenas (ca. 40-10 f.Kr.)
  • Amanishakheto (ca. 10 f.Kr. og#82111 CE)
  • Amanitore (r. c. 1-c. 25 CE)
  • Amantitere (r. c. 25-c. 41 CE)
  • Amanikhatashan (r. 62-c. 85 CE)
  • Maleqorobar (r. c. 266-c. 283 CE)
  • Lahideamani (ca. 306-c. 314 CE)

En “Candace, dronning af etiopierne ” er nævnt i Bibelen, når apostelen Filip møder “a eunuch af stor autoritet ” under hendes regeringstid og konverterer ham til kristendommen (ApG 8: 27-39). I denne passage, som i andre gamle værker, der nævner Candace, er den kongelige titel ofte blevet forvekslet med et personligt navn.

Inden c. 284 fvt., Konger regerede Kush fra Meroe, men kongen Ergamenes (også kendt som Arkamani I, r. 295-275 fvt) indførte en række reformer, og blandt disse synes det at være forhøjelsen af ​​kongelige kvinder til dronningens stilling. Titlen “ Kentake ” vises før Ergamenes ’ regeringstid, men der er ingen tegn på, at kvinder regerede sammen med en konge og kun en kongelig kvinde, der var kongens mor efter hans regeringstid, men titlen refererer dog ofte til en kvindelig monark. Mandlige herskere følger Ergamenes i træk og ser ud til at have haft dronninger, der medregerede eller udøvede betydelig indflydelse, men dronningen Candace Shanakdakhete (ca. 170 f.Kr.) regerede uafhængigt og det samme gjorde en række kvinder efter hende.

Meroe blomstrede som hovedstad i kongeriget Kush mellem ca. 750 BCE – 350 CE og blev legendarisk som en by med fabelagtig rigdom. Beliggende på Nilen i regionen i nutidens Sudan, blev Meroe rig af handel og dets jernværk og rigelige kornforsyning sikrede en stabil produktion af varer, andre ønskede og havde brug for, men det var monarkiet, periodisk kontrolleret af kvinder, der etablerede og vedligeholdt den handel, der opmuntrede til en sådan velstand.

Byen begyndte at falde på grund af overforbrug af jorden og ressourcerne og havde allerede passeret sit højdepunkt, da den blev invaderet af Axumitterne (fra kongeriget Axum, der ligger i det nuværende Etiopien/Eritrea) i ca. 330 CE og fyret. Det blev opgivet 20 år senere c. 350 CE og Candace -titlen forsvinder bagefter fra den historiske rekord.

The Rise of Meroe & amp Ergamenes

Meroe var oprindeligt et administrativt center syd for den kushitiske hovedstad Napata. I 590 fvt blev Napata fyret af den egyptiske konge Psammeticus II (r. 595-589 fvt), og hovedstaden blev flyttet til Meroe. Napata havde været stærkt påvirket af egyptisk kultur og religion, da hele kongeriget Kush oprindeligt var på grund af tæt kontakt gennem handel og Egyptens gentagne militære kampagner i regionen. Det samme paradigme blev holdt på Meroe, hvor officielle dokumenter blev skrevet på egyptisk, guderne, der dukkede op i templerne, var egyptiske, kunst blev skabt i egyptiske stilarter, konger blev afbildet som egyptiske faraoer, og deres grave var pyramider.

Byen blomstrede allerede, før den blev hovedstaden i Kush, men bagefter ville dens rigdom blive legendarisk. Store marker gav rigelige afgrøder, der let blev transporteret op og ned af den nærliggende Nile i handelen. Jægere forfulgte bytte som leoparder og elefanter, hvis skind og stødtænder derefter blev handlet op ad floden til Egypten. Hovedindustrien var imidlertid jernbearbejdning, og meroitiske værktøjer og våben blev meget eftertragtede og kostede en høj pris.

Byens konger regulerede handel, og det er muligt, at de fulgte en model, der lignede Egypten, hvor skatter og penge fra handel gik til regeringen, som derefter gav ressourcer til folket. Jernindustrien blomstrede ikke kun på grund af de dygtige håndværkere i byen, men også de rigelige naturressourcer i de enorme skove omkring Meroe. Træ var påkrævet for ovnene til at smelte jernet og også til produktion af trækul, og disse ovne brændte varme dagligt. Læreren Kevin Shillington bemærker:

Den dag i dag stiger enorme høje affaldsslagger fra deres smelteovne op langs den moderne jernbane for at vidne om den enorme jernproduktion fra det antikke kongerige Meroe. Jern gav landmændene og jægerne i Meroe overlegne værktøjer og våben. Udviklingen og brugen af ​​jern var således delvist ansvarlig for selve det succesfulde, vækst og rigdom i det meroitiske rige. (44)

Da Ergamenes kom til tronen i 295 fvt, havde Meroe allerede haft fremgang i århundreder, men hans reformer ville kun forbedre byens succes. Ifølge historikeren Diodorus Siculus (1. århundrede f.Kr.) havde Ergamenes studeret græsk filosofi og var ikke tilbøjelig til blindt at følge sit folks religiøse traditioner. Blandt disse traditioner var praksisen ved, at Amunch -præsterne ville monarken, sætte et spænd for monarkens regeringstid og beslutte, hvornår kongen skulle dø til gavn for folket og give plads til en efterfølger.

Amuns kult havde været en magtfuld politisk kraft i Egypten i årtusinder og udøvet den samme slags indflydelse på kongerne i Kush. I Napata byggede faktisk den egyptiske farao Thutmose III (r. 1458-1425 fvt) templet Amun, som ville blive det vigtigste religiøse sted i kongeriget i århundreder. Som i Egypten synes præstedømmet at have været skattefritaget og kunne derfor påløbe betydelig rigdom og indflydelse.

Ergamenes brød præsternes magt gennem direkte handling, ikke lovgivning, ved at ankomme til templet i Napata med en væbnet styrke og slagte dem alle. Derefter kasserede han traditionen med præstedømmets indflydelse på kongen, selvom han opretholdt Amun -kulten, og igangsatte yderligere reformer for at fjerne Meroe fra egyptisk indflydelse.

Guderne, selvom de stadig bærer nogle tegn på egyptisk kultur, begynder at fremstå som indfødte guder under hans regeringstid. Pyramiderne indtager en unik meroitisk arkitekturstil. Konger og deres dronninger optræder i meroitisk påklædning, og periodens kunst skifter væk fra egyptisk til en udpræget indfødt stil. Vigtigst af alt forsvinder egyptiske hieroglyffer under Ergamenes ’ regeringstid for at blive erstattet af meroitisk script. Denne reform er vigtig, fordi dette script endnu ikke er blevet dechiffreret, og på grund af dette er historien om de sidste århundreder i kongeriget Kush sløret.

Det er klart, at Kush havde hære, men meget lidt er kendt om deres organisation. Der var naturligvis en stærk central regering, men daglig administrativ praksis og endda successionsprocessen er uklar. Handelen blomstrede, men præcis hvordan den blev udført er ukendt. Navnene på herskerne i Meroe og deres sandsynlige regeringsperioder blev sammensat af arkæologen George A. og modsætninger i hans fortælling, som kun kunne løses ved en skriftlig kulturhistorie.

Det er denne mangel på en sådan historie, der gør en diskussion om Meroes stearin så udfordrende. Det ser ud til, at praksis i Meroe var, at kongens bror efterfulgte ham, ikke kongens søn, og dog titlen på Candacesynes oprindeligt at have henvist til kongens mor, der ifølge forsker Derek A. Welsby udpeger kronprinsens mor, dvs. mor til den næste konge ” (26). Da en Candace også var hustru til en regerende konge, ville denne fortolkning betyde, at en konge ’s søn ville efterfølge ham, og alligevel ser det ikke ud til at være tilfældet. Welsby skriver:

De beviser, vi har, tyder på, at selv med en 'juridisk ’ succession, var der ingen hårde og hurtige regler for valget af den næste monark, og dette kan kun have ført til forvirring og potentiel eller faktisk konflikt under magtoverførslen. (27)

Om der var en sådan konflikt, er imidlertid langt fra klart. Beviser tyder på fortsat spænding mellem tronen og templet og muligvis mellem efterfølgere, men der kan ikke opnås enighed om dens fortolkning. Det kan være, at sletning af navne og ødelæggelse af visse monumenter skyldtes konflikt i dynastisk rækkefølge eller at præsterne forsøgte at genoprette deres magt, men lige så let måske heller ikke havde noget at gøre med. Det er også ukendt præcis, hvor stor indflydelse en dronning i Meroe havde før Ergamenes ’ regeringstid, alt hvad der er kendt med sikkerhed er, at efter hans regeringstid havde nogle kvindelige herskere betydelig magt og Meroe blomstrede i overensstemmelse hermed.

Meroes stearinlys

Shanakdakhete (ca. 170 f.Kr.): Den første dronning, der regerede uafhængigt, var Shanakdakhete (også givet som Shanakdakheto), der optræder i kampkjole, der leder sine hære. Under hendes regeringstid udvidede Meroe sine grænser, og økonomien kom op. Hun har muligvis udført en religiøst-politisk funktion i retning af positionen som Guds hustru til Amun i Egypten (den kvindelige pendant til ypperstepræsten i Amun). Hendes tilslutning til egyptiske traditioner er tydelig i hendes inskriptioner, hvor hun omtaler sig selv som “Son of Ra, Lord of the Two Lands, elsket af Ma ’at ”, som er en almindelig egyptisk betegnelse. Hun er afbildet med en ung mand, tydeligvis en kronprins, der måske er hendes efterfølger Tanyidamani (uklare datoer), men dette er spekulation. Det er også uklart, om Tanyidamani overhovedet var hendes efterfølger.

Amanirenas (ca. 40-10 fvt.): Amanirenas er bedst kendt som dronningen, der vandt gunstige vilkår fra Augustus Cæsar (r. 27 fvt-14 e.Kr.) efter konflikten kendt som den meroitiske krig (27-22 fvt) mellem Kush og Rom. Krigen begyndte som reaktion på, at kushitiske angrebspartier foretog indtrængen i det romerske Egypten. Rom havde annekteret Egypten som en provins efter slaget ved Actium i 31 f.Kr., og det blev hurtigt et af det nye imperiums mest kritiske områder, da det forsynede Rom med en overflod af korn. Den romerske præfekt i Egypten, Gaius Petronius reagerede på angrebene ved at invadere Kush omkring 22 fvt og ødelægge byen Napata. Amanirenas blev på ingen måde koet og gengældt med yderligere aggression. Hun er afbildet som en modig dronning, blind på det ene øje og en dygtig forhandler. Efter konflikten er hendes kontrol over vilkårene tydelig i Rom ’s respekt i fredsforhandlingerne og en stigning i handelen mellem Rom og Meroe. Amanirenas havde fanget en række statuer fra Egypten, blandt dem mange af Augustus, som hun vendte tilbage efter freden, men hovedet på en begravede hun under trinene i et tempel, så folk kunne gå over Augustus i deres daglige besøg. Dette er det berømte Meroe Head, der nu ligger i British Museum.

Amanishakheto (r. c. 10 f.Kr. 𔂿 CE): Lidt er kendt om Amanishakheto uden for hendes overdådige gravvarer med udsmykkede smykker. Hendes grav var blandt de mange i Meroe, der blev brudt ind og ødelagt af den berygtede skattejæger Giuseppe Ferlini (1797-1870 CE), der ikke havde nogen interesse i historie eller bevarelse og kun søgte guld og artefakter, han kunne sælge for en høj pris. Ødelagte indskrifter og relieffer fra hendes grav viser hende som en magtfuld dronning, der regerede uafhængigt, men detaljer om hendes regeringstid er gået tabt.

Amanitore (r. c. 1-c. 25 CE): Amanitore regerede over den mest velstående periode i Meroes historie. Hun var i stand til at genopbygge Amun -templet i Napata og renoverede det store tempel til guden i Meroe. Handelen var på sit højeste, som det fremgår af gravvarer og andre artefakter fra perioden, og jernindustrien og landbruget blomstrede som bevist af mængden af ​​affaldsslagger og forbedrede kunstvandingskanaler gravet i løbet af denne tid. Hun er afbildet sammen med sin medhersker kong Natakamani, men det er uklart, om han var hendes mand eller søn, og det ser ud til, at hun regerede alene senere. Hun er afbildet på sin tempelmur ved Naqa, der erobrer sine fjender som en krigerdronning. Hun er muligvis den Candace, der refereres til i Bibelens Apostelgerninger 8:27 (nævnt i begyndelsen af ​​denne artikel), men det er bestridt, at det er mere sandsynligt, at dronningen var Amantitere.

Amantitere (r. c. 25-c. 41 CE): Amantitere er den dronning, der oftest identificeres som Candace i Apostelgerninger 8:27. Det er blevet antydet, at hun muligvis kun var jøde ud fra den passage i Bibelen, hvor hendes eunuk, som apostelen Filip stødte på, læser Esajas 'Bog. Der er ingen beviser i Meroe selv, der understøtter eksistensen af ​​et jødisk samfund, men sådanne samfund eksisterede i hele Kush i et lille antal. Den bibelske passage er også blevet citeret for at bevise, at Amantitere regerede alene, siden det hedder, at hendes eunuk havde stor autoritet og havde ansvaret for hendes statskasse, men disse udsagn beviser næppe en autonom dronning mere end eunuchens læsning af Esajas argumenterer for hendes jødedom. Intet vides om hendes regeringstid, men fysiske beviser fra perioden viser en høj grad af velstand.

Amanikhatashan (r. c. 62-c. 85 CE): Intet vides om hendes regeringstid undtagen den militære bistand, hun ydede til Rom under den første jødisk-romerske krig 66-73 CE. Hun sendte kushitiske kavalerier, men sandsynligvis sendte også bueskytter, da de kushitiske bueskytter var legendariske for deres dygtighed. Et af de tidlige egyptiske navne for regionen Kush var faktisk Ta-Sety (“ The Bow of Land ”) af denne grund. Intet andet vides om hendes regeringstid, men ligesom andre senere lysestager var hun højst sandsynligt forbundet med den egyptiske gudinde Nut som ypperstepræstinde. Nut var himmelgudinden, der personificerede himlens baldakin og var mor til de primære guder Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys og Horus den Ældre. Selvom egyptisk skrift faldt ud af brug under Ergamenes ’ regeringstid, blev ægyptiske guder som Amun, Nut og andre fortsat æret. Det er muligt, om end langt fra klart, at Amanikhatashan ville have tjent som den mest magtfulde religiøse skikkelse i Meroe som præstinde for Nut.

Maleqorobar (r. c. 266-c. 283 CE) og Lahideamani (r. c. 306-c. 314 CE): Intet vides om disse to dronningers regeringstid. De vides at have hersket over Meroe under dens tilbagegang, men ingen andre detaljer er kommet frem. Meroe ’s rigdom og prestige begyndte at aftage c. 200 CE, da Rom hævede kongeriget Axum i Etiopien til sin primære handelspartner, og Meroe blev nedsat. Præcis hvorfor Rom valgte dette forløb er uklart, men en del af årsagen kunne have været overforbrug af landet omkring byen, der udtømte dets ressourcer. Skovene var blevet brugt til at levere brændstof til jernindustrien, og markerne blev opbrugt af næringsstoffer gennem fast landbrug og overdrev af husdyr. I c. 330 CE Meroe blev invaderet af Axum, højst sandsynligt under deres konge Ezana, og fyret det var øde c. 350 CE.

Konklusion

I 1834 CE, da Giuseppe Ferlini plyndrede Meroes skatte, kunne han ikke finde nogen købere, fordi det europæiske marked nægtede at tro, at et sort afrikansk rige havde produceret så utrolige værker. Egypten havde længe været “ hvidkalket ” og blev anset for at være adskilt fra kongeriger mod syd som Kush, som var forbundet med sort Afrika. Siden det blev nævnt i Bibelen, blev Egypten, ligesom Palæstina, rutinemæssigt afbildet som værende beboet af hvide mennesker af europæere og amerikanere, der havde haft det godt med at tilbede en hvid Jesus og ære en hvid Moses, men de så aldrig behovet for at udvide dette opfattede “hvidhed#8221 helt ned på Afrikas kontinent.

Næsten hundrede år senere, da George A. Reisner udgravede Meroe, konkluderede han, at den herskende klasse i Meroe var lyshudede mennesker, der herskede over den sorte befolkning “ignorant ”, der kun blev forhøjet af deres monarker og udsatte dem for egyptisk kultur. Reisner konkluderede dette af de samme racistiske grunde, som de hvide europæere i Ferlinis tid afviste hans artefakter. Selv i midten af ​​det 20. århundrede CE var det utænkeligt for det videnskabelige samfund, at et sortskindet folk kunne have skabt en civilisation som det kushitiske kongerige Meroe.

Det samme paradigme er blevet fulgt med hensyn til de kvindelige herskere i dette rige. Det er blevet foreslået, at Candace var en medhersker med en mandlig konge, og tilfælde af en kvinde, der alene regerede, er simpelthen tilfælde af en regent, der holdt tronen for sin søn. Denne type scenarie er bestemt mulig - som bemærket er det meroitiske script ikke blevet dechiffreret, og Meroes historie er langt fra klar - men med hensyn til monarkiet virker det ganske tydeligt, at kvinder ikke kun styrede, men gjorde det muligt for riget at trives. Candoes of Meroe er faktisk blandt de mest magtfulde og succesrige monarker i kongeriget Kush, og deres dygtighed i ledelse var nogen konge lige eller bedre.


The Candaces of Meroe Tidslinje - Historie

& quot Og Herrens engel talte til Filip og sagde: Stå op og gå mod syd til den vej, der går ned fra Jerusalem til Gaza, som er ørken. Og han rejste sig og gik; og se, en mand fra Etiopien, en eunuk med stor myndighed under Candace -dronningen af ​​etiopierne, som havde ansvaret for al sin skat og var kommet til Jerusalem for at tilbede, vendte tilbage og sad i sin vogn læste profeten Esaias & quot (Apostelgerninger 8: 26-28, konteksten fortsætter gennem vers 40).

Navnet & quotCandace & quot vises kun en gang i Bibelen (Apostelgerninger 8:27). Etiopien nævnes imidlertid med det navn 20 gange i Bibelen, såvel som der ellers henvises til det (f.eks. Cush). Der er ingen kontroverser om brugen af ​​udtrykket & quotCandace & quot, selvom der er en vis forvirring angående placeringen af ​​det bibelske Etiopien. Følgende materiale definerer & quotCandace, & quot lokaliserer bibelske Etiopien for bibelstudenten og angiver forholdet mellem det gamle Etiopien og den antikke verden. Etiopien, ligesom andre tidligere uklare afdøde imperier, der interagerede med Guds folk, fortjener en vis eksponering for eleven Hellig skrift.

Historisk set regerede konger frem for dronninger normalt kongeriger i antikken. Typisk steg mænd op til troner, ledede hære og var krigere. To bemærkelsesværdige undtagelser, der tilskriver kongelig styre til kvinder, forekommer imidlertid både i Bibelen og i den verdslige historie. & quot I Det Nye Testamente læser vi om 'dronningen i syden', dvs. det sydlige Arabien, Sheba (Matt. 12:42 Luk 11:31) og 'etiopiernes dronning' (Apostelgerninger 8:27), Candace. & quot 1 Yderligere førte den etiopiske dronning også krige, der førte hære i kamp, ​​som hære til dels bestod af kvindelige krigere. & quot Strabo nævner en dronning af Mero i Etiopien under dette navn, der sandsynligvis ligesom Farao var en dynastisk titel. & Quot 3

Således siger Plinius (Hist. Nat. 6:29), at centurionerne, som Nero sendte for at udforske landet, rapporterede, og at en kvinde herskede over Meroe, kaldet Candace, et navn, der havde sænket sig til dronningerne i mange år. & Quot Strabo også (s. . 820, red. Casaub.) Taler om en kriger-dronning i Etiopien kaldet Candace i Augustus regeringstid, den samme som Dion Cassius (54: 5) beskriver som dronning af & quotEthiopierne, der bor over (øvre) Egypten. & Quot In BC 22 hun havde invaderet Egypten og kort efter fornærmet romerne på den etiopiske grænse i Egypten. Caius Petronius, guvernøren i sidstnævnte provins, marcherede mod etiopierne, og efter at have besejret dem i feltet tog Pselca og krydsede derefter sandet, der længe før havde vist sig dødeligt for Cambyses, avancerede til Premnis, en stærk position. Han angreb derefter Napata, hovedstaden i dronning Candace, tog og ødelagde den, men trak sig derefter tilbage til Premnis, hvor han efterlod en garnison, som den krigeriske dronning angreb, men de blev lettet af Petronius. Hun blev stadig senere behandlet positivt af Augustus. Det siges, at hun har mistet det ene øje (se Smith's Dict. Of Class. Biog. S. V.). 4

En mærkelig bekræftelse af, at kvindelig suverænitet havde hersket i Etiopien, er blevet bemærket om de eksisterende monumenter i landet. Således på den største gravpyramide nær Assour trækker den gamle Meroe (se Cailliaud, plade xlvi), en kvindelig kriger, med de kongelige anseelser på hovedet, en række fanger frem som ofre til guderne i et andet rum, hun er i en krigisk vane, ved at ødelægge den samme gruppe. Blandt etiopierne, siger Strabo (s. 1177), er kvinderne også bevæbnet. 5

Som allerede angivet ovenfor er navnet & quotCandace & quot et dynasti navn eller titel frem for et personligt navn. I dette var udtrykket & quotCandace & quot ikke ulig kongelige eller familienavne på herskere i mange andre gamle herredømme (f.eks. Farao, Cæsar, Herodes). & quotCandace. Det almindelige navn på dronningerne i Meroe: en titulær sondring, som farao i Egypten eller Cæsar i Rom. & Quot 6 & quot , '' Cæsar ') er en fælles titel for flere på hinanden følgende dronninger. & Quot 7

I nogen tid både før og efter den kristne æra var Ethiopia Proper underlagt regeringen af ​​kvindelige suveræne, som alle bar betegnelsen & quotCandace, & quot, som ikke så meget var et eget navn som en særpræg, der var fælles for enhver efterfølgende dronning, ligesom & quot; farao & quot og & quot 8

CANDACE [KAN duh see] (dronning eller hersker over børn) -en dronning af Etiopien (Apostelgerninger 8:27). Candace, en titel, refererede ikke til en bestemt dronning, men til en række dronninger. 9

Candace. Ikke et eget navn, men titlen på det kongelige embede. Kongen af ​​Etiopien blev anset for at være solens barn og derfor for hellig til at udøve de egentlige funktioner i regeringen. Dronningemoren, der blev kaldt Candace, udøvede reglen. 10

Under etiopiernes Candace -dronning. Vi lærer af Plinius ('HN' vi. 29), der blomstrede under Vespasians regeringstid, at dette i mange år havde været familienavnet på dronningerne i Øvre Egypten-lignende Abimelech, Farao, Cæsar osv. Og Eusebius ('EH' ii. 10) siger, at som i Sheba (Syd -Arabien), så fik hun lov til at herske her. 11

Candace siges at have været det almindelige navn på dronningerne i Etiopien, da "farao" var af Egyptens suveræne. Dette er udtrykkeligt angivet af Plinius (Nat. History, 7:29). Hans ord er: & quot Byens bygninger var få, hvor en kvinde regerede der under navnet Candace, hvilket navn havde været overført til disse dronninger i mange år. & Quot Strabo nævner også en dronning af Etiopien af ​​navnet Candace. Apropos en opstand mod romerne, siger han, & quot Blandt disse var officerer for dronning CANDACE, som i vore dage regerede over etiopierne. & Quot Da dette ikke kunne have været Candace nævnt her, er det klart, at navnet var almindeligt for disse dronninger-en slags kongelig titel. 12

Mange sekulære monumenter taler om den høje hæder, der blev betalt til kvinder i Etiopien, og Candace (Apostelgerninger 8:27) synes bestemt at have været et officielt eller dynastisk navn for en række etiopiske dronninger. En af pyramiderne i Meroe var Candaces-hendes billede kan stadig ses på Kaga-og til hende tilhørte den vidunderlige skat af smykker, der blev fundet i 1834 af Ferlini og nu i Berlin-museet. 13

Indtil videre har vi konstateret, at Candace refererer til et dynasti af kvindelige krigerdronninger i det gamle Etiopien. Overfladen af ​​rigeligt bevis fører til denne universelt anerkendte konklusion. Placeringen af ​​dette kongerige for længe siden er imidlertid ikke indlysende, fordi der var to Etiopier, hvoraf ingen var placeret præcis der, hvor det moderne land Etiopien er på kloden. & quotDer var to Etiopier, et i Arabien, men der lå øst for Kanaän skulle det virke som om det var Etiopien i Afrika, som lå syd, ud over Egypten. & quot 14 I øjeblikket ligger Etiopien to lande syd for Egypten med landet Sudan liggende mellem Egypten og Etiopien.

ETHIOPIA CUSH Etiopien, der hedder Cush i den hebraiske bibel og Cash i egyptiske kilder, nævnes første gang i Første Mosebog (2:13) som det land, der omfattes af floden Gihon, som flød fra Edens have. Beliggende i Nildalen mellem den anden og den fjerde grå stær, blev den fra tidlig tid identificeret som Nubia. 15

Ovenstående citat refererer til et bredere område eller en yderligere lokalitet med navnet & quot; Etiopien & quot; udover den fast ejendom, der specifikt er under vores overvejelse og svarer til Apostelgerninger 8: 26-28.

"Etiopien" var et af de store kongeriger i Afrika, hvoraf en del nu kaldes Abyssinia. Det nævnes ofte i Bibelen under navnet & quotCush. & Quot "Men & quotCush & quot forstod en meget større region, herunder den sydlige del af Arabien, og endda undertiden de lande, der støder op til Tigris og Eufrat. Egentligt Etiopien lå syd for Egypten, på Nilen, og blev afgrænset nord af Egypten, det vil sige af grå stær nær Syene øst ved Rødehavet, og måske del af Det Indiske Ocean syd af ukendte regioner i det indre af Afrika og vest af Libyen og ørkenerne. Det forstod de moderne kongeriger Nubia eller Sennaar og Abessinien. Hovedbyen i den var den gamle Meroe, der ligger på øen eller kanalen med samme navn, mellem Nilen og Ashtaboras, ikke langt fra den moderne Shendi Robinson's Calmet. 16

Abessinien var et ekspansivt imperium fra det 19. århundrede i det østlige Afrika, der omtrent tilnærmede det moderne Etiopien og inklusive kilderne til Nilen. Nubia var et gammelt rige i det østlige Afrika, der omfattede det sydlige Egypten og nutidens Sudan. Det bibelske Etiopien ser ud til at have omfattet både Nubia og Abyssinien eller på den moderne kloden, det sydlige Egypten, Sudan og Etiopien.

Placeringen af ​​Etiopien, hvor bibelstudenten primært er interesseret, vedrører Candace og er i Afrika syd for Egypten. Citeringer ovenfor nævnte allerede sin chef eller hovedstad, som undertiden selv kongeriget blev identificeret af ikke-etiopiere. Meroe var en øby i Nilen. Derfor refererer Det Gamle Testamente lejlighedsvis til disse floder, når de nævner Etiopien. & quot Ve det land, der skygger med vinger, som ligger ud over floderne i Etiopien & quot (Esajas 18: 1). & quot Fra andre sider af Etiopiens floder skal mine hjælpere, selv min spredtes datter, bringe mit offer & quot (Zefanja 3:10).

Isa 18: 1 Som (er) ud over floderne i Etiopien. Meroe, øen mellem & quotrivers & quot; Nilen og Astaboras er ment, berømt for sin handel og måske sæde for den etiopiske regering, og derfor her henvist til at repræsentere hele imperiet. 17

en mand i Etiopien-navnet blev i gamle dage givet til Øvre eller Sydlige Egypten, hvoraf Meroe-en rig ø dannet af to grene af Nilen-var hovedstaden. 18

CANDACE Queen of Ethiopia (øen Meroe, i øvre Nubia, mellem Nilen på den ene side og Atbara på den anden). 19

Af Etiopien. Navnet på de lande, der ligger syd for Egypten, herunder det moderne Nubia, Cordofan og det nordlige Abyssinia. Rawlinson taler om emner fra de etiopiske dronninger, der bor på en ø nær Meroe, i den nordlige del af dette distrikt. 20

CANDACE Landet, som hun styrede over, var den region i Øvre Nubia, der blev kaldt af grækerne Meroe. 21

ETIOPIEN. Afgjort af efterkommere af *Cush (Gn. 10: 6), er bibelske Etiopien (Gk. Aithiops, 'brændt ansigt', jf. Je. 13:23) en del af kongeriget Nubia, der strækker sig fra Aswan ( *syvende) S til krydset mellem Nilen nær moderne Khartoum. 22

Etiopien - brændt land står over for det græske ord, hvormed den hebraiske Cush gengives (1 Mos 2:13 2 Kongebog 19: 9 Esther 1: 1 Job 28:19 Sl. 68:31 87: 4), et land, der lå syd for Egypten, der begyndte ved Syene ved den første grå stær (Ezek. 29:10 30: 6) og strakte sig ud over sammenløbet mellem den hvide og blå Nil. Det svarer generelt til det, der nu er kendt som Soudan (dvs. de sortes land). Dette land kendte hebræerne og er beskrevet i Es. 18: 1 Zeph. 3:10. De havde et kommercielt samkvem med det (Es. 45:14). Dens indbyggere var efterkommere af Ham (1 Mos. 10: 6 Jer. 13:23 Isa. 18: 2, & quotscattered and peeled, & quot A.V. but in R.V. & quottall and smooth & quot). Herodot, den græske historiker, beskriver dem som & quot den højeste og smukkeste af mænd. & Quot De er ofte repræsenteret på egyptiske monumenter, og de er alle af typen den sande neger. Som det kunne forventes, er dette lands historie sammenvævet med Egyptens historie. Etiopien tales om i profetier (Sl. 68:31 87: 4 Es. 45:14 Ezek. 30: 4 9 Dan. 11:43 Ne. 3: 8-10 Hab. 3: 7 Zef. 2:12). 23

Den moderne Meroe, ved den store bøjning af Nilen ved Soudan. Denne by var den kongelige residens for dronning Candace (Apostelgerninger 8:27). Her er der omfattende og pragtfulde ruiner. 24

For omfanget af hendes rige, som sandsynligvis var centreret i regionen Øvre Nubia (Meroe) snarere end i nutidens Etiopien 25

Cush eller Kush : oldtidsland NE Afrika i Nildalen S i Egypten 26

Etiopien selv var et meget større territorium end den procentdel af jord, der var behageligt for landbruget og opretholdt en bosat befolkning. Ligesom Egypten direkte nord for Etiopien var Candaces rige afhængig af Nilen for at overleve.

Bortset fra naturressourcer kan en nation prale af, bare hvor et land bor i forhold til resten af ​​de nationer, det interagerer med, bidrager til, om det gavner eller lider tab i handelstransaktioner. For eksempel lå byen Korinth på en landtange, der tillod den at lette landhandelen nord-syd i Grækenland og øst-vest ad søvejen gennem søsterhavne på hver side af landtangen. Palæstina sammensatte landbroen for rejser og handel mellem Afrika, Arabien, Europa og Asien. In the case of Ethiopia, it was beyond the southern border of the civilized world and served as a kind of land port for Africa to the rest of the settled lands north of it.

Candace -- the queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14). her kingdom, which probably centered in the region of Upper Nubia (Meroe) rather than in modern-day Ethiopia. 27

Although most of biblical history is centered on the tiny land of Palestine, the geographical references found in the Bible touch on three continents. Eastern and western boundaries for the range of biblical geography are given by Paul's reference to Spain (Rom. 15:28) and references to the Persian nation (Ezek. 27:10 38:5). References to the Scythians (north of the Black Sea e.g., Col. 3:11) and Ethiopia (e.g., Ezek. 38:5) show the north-south range. 28

Regarding ancient kingdoms that interacted with God's people, it is important also to note when that nation flourished. Further, with whom such a kingdom interacted and under what circumstances helps one better understand the backdrop for biblical references to it. The biblical Ethiopia corresponding to Acts 8:26-28 was prominent after the close of Old Testament revelation through the period of the establishment of the church and for the first three centuries after Christ.

The country over which she ruled was that region in Upper Nubia called by the Greeks Meroe, where George Reisner identified pyramid tombs of reigning Candaces of Ethiopia constructed from c. 300 b.c. to a.d. 300. 29

However, that the Jewish prophets (such as Isaiah) addressed Ethiopia as a contemporary country dates the nation back even father to at least 700 B.C.

Including the two biblical designations for Ethiopia, several biblical references variously ascribe numerous qualities to the people of Ethiopia or Cush. On one hand, Cush represented everything south and east of Israel and more narrowly referred to an area south of Egypt.

Petronius (24 BC) raided Ethiopia for Rome and stormed the capital, but Candace sent ambassadors to Rome and obtained peace. The "eunuch" who may have been the treasurer of this very queen was probably "no black proselyte but a Jew who had placed the business ability of his race at the service of the Nubian woman" (W. Max Muller). In the Old Testament Ethiopia is spoken of with great respect, and several Bible characters are named Cushi (2 Sam 18:21 the King James Version Jer 36:14 Zeph 1:1) even Moses married an Ethiopian wife (Num 12:1), and Ebed-melek the Ethiopian is helper to Jeremiah (Jer 38:7). It is a great land situated beyond the frontiers of the civilized world (Ezek 29:10), yet with Jews in its farthest district (Zeph 3:10). It is very rich (Job 28:19 Isa 43:3) is engaged in trade with Arabia (45:14), and its citizens are proud of their nationality (Ps 87:4). Again and again the relation of Cush with Sheba is mentioned (Gen 10:7,28 Isa 43:3, etc.), which latter statement is strangely corroborated by the recently discovered Sabaean inscriptions throughout Abyssinia. Its typical inhabitants have a color as unchangeable as the leopard's spots (Jer 13:23), are careless (Ezek 30:9), but very warlike (Ezek 38:5 Jer 46:9), giving "infinite" strength to Nineveh (Nah 3:9), but who can be resisted by Israel because of Yahweh's favor (2 Chron 16:8 Isa 20:5 36:6). Yahweh is interested in the history of Ethiopia as well as Egypt (Isa 20:3), loves the children of Ethiopia as the children of Israel (Amos 9:7), and the time is coming when Ethiopia shall yet stretch out her hands to Yahweh (Ps 68:31). Cush and Mizraim are correctly mentioned as political units (Isa 20:4 f), and several kings of Ethiopia are mentioned by name-Zerah (2 Chron 14:9), So (2 Kings 17:4) and Tirhaqah (2 Kings 19:9 Isa 37:9). 30

In conclusion, "Candace" is an utterly meaningless term to the Bible reader, until he discovers her identity. At best, the casual Bible pupil will incorrectly assign biblical references concerning Ethiopia to a contemporary nation by the same name, until he learns better. Biblical references to Candace and Ethiopia will seem inconsequential, until one realizes that they represent a real chapter in human history and that God's people and others with whom God's people interacted are recorded on the pages of that chapter.

Summarized, Candace was the dynasty name for the female regent ruling a kingdom (biblical Ethiopia) straddling the Nile River and south of Egypt. Ethiopia served as the threshold of limited contact and valued trade between the so-called uncivilized tribes of Africa and civilization that encircled the Mediterranean Sea and extended to Arabia and Asia. The Ethiopia of the first century petitioned Rome for peace, after its military aggression on the Roman control of Egypt was thoroughly repulsed and consequently Ethiopia itself was defeated in its own land. Therefore, Ethiopia was at peace with the Roman Empire when in Acts Eight the treasurer of Ethiopia (either as a Gentile proselyte to Judaism or a Jew whose ancestors sought refuge or business interests in Ethiopia) traveled to Jerusalem for worship. Especially the great contributions of the Grecian and Roman empires to the so-called civilized world (e.g., law and order, highways, universal language, common monetary system, postal service, etc.) permitted introduction of the Gospel in not only Palestine, but in Europe, Asia and Africa. The background lying behind Acts 8:26-28 when brought to light makes the study of that passage more rewarding.

This was the dynastic name of the queens of Ethiopia, just as Pharaoh was the dynastic name, or title, of the kings of Egypt. The kingdom was that of Meroe. The fact of the eunuch's traveling some fifteen hundred miles to worship indicates that he was a devout worshiper of God. As he came along in his chariot, reading from a roll of the prophecy of Isaiah, someone has said that he was like a man at sunrise, tilting his manuscript in such a manner as to catch the first rays of the rising sun of Christianity. 31

Endnotes

1 Easton, M. G., M. A. D. D., Easton's Bible Dictionary , (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1996.

2 Fausset's Bible Dictionary , Electronic Database, (Biblesoft) 1998.

3 Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church , (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc .) 1997.

4 McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia , Electronic Database (Biblesoft) 2000.

6 Vincent's Word Studies of the New Testament , Electroni c Database, (Biblesoft) 1997.

8 McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia.

9 Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Copyright (Nashville:Thomas Nelson Publishers) 1986.

10 The Wycliffe Bible Commentary , Electronic Database, (Moody Press) 1962.

11 Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary , Electronic Database, (Biblesoft) 1997.

12 Barnes' Notes , Electronic Database, (Biblesoft) 1997.

13 International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia , Electronic Database, (Biblesoft) 1996.

14 Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible : New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.) 1991.

15 G.G. The Jerusalem, The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land , (New York: Prentice Hall Press) 1990.

17 Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary.

19 Fausset's Bible Dictionary .

20 Vincent's Word Studies of the New Testament .

21 McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia .

22 The New Bible Dictionary , (Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.) 1962.

26 Merriam Webster' s Collegiate Dictionary , (Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated) 1993.

28 Karleen, Paul S., The Handbook to Bible Study , (New York: Oxford University Press) 1987.

29 The New Unger's Bible Dictionary, (Chicago:Moody Press) 1988.

30 International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia .

31 Coffman, James Burton, Acts 8:26," James Burton Coffman Bible Study Library: The New Testament, (Abilene:ACU Press).

Copyright 2001 Louis Rushmore. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes.
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KINGDOM OF MEROE: Modern approach by “Ancient” AFRICANS

On the eastern bank of the Nile River, about 200 km north-east of Khartoum, Sudan, resides the archeological site that contains remnants of a once flourishing civilization that left behind remains of royal palaces, temples, residential areas, manufacturing areas and even impressive pyramid fields. This archeological site unravels the mysteries of the ancient city of Meroe, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush or sometimes also called the kingdom of Meroe.

In 785 BC, after the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Kushite ruling era was established in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. With the support of Nubian armies, the viceroys of Kush became practically independent kings, free of Egyptian control. The central city of Napata initially served as the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. The kings of Kush came from hereditary ruling families of Egyptianized Nubian chiefs however, they had neither family nor political ties with Egypt. Under King Kashta’s rule, control of Upper Egypt (the southern area) was acquired, and his son Piye (750 -719 BC) managed to bring the whole of Egypt to the shores of the Mediterranean under the administration of the Kingdom of Kush. That didn’t last for long though, for in 671 BC, the Assyrians with their superior iron-forged weapons managed to drive the Kushites back to Nubia.

In the kingdom behind the barren hills that blocked the southward advance from Aswan, Kush still managed to rule the middle Nile region for another thousand years. At a time when the Egyptian culture became influenced with that of the Roman, Greek and Persian cultures, the unique Egyptian-Nubian culture of Kush was well intact and preserved. Along with that culture, Kush evolved a culture of its own as they developed their own language and cursive script (initially derived from hieroglyphics), the Meroitic language and worshiped their own gods (along with the Egyptian gods). Their wealth continued to grow from their control of the trade routes as well as the generous flow from the mines.

Not late after the retreat from Egypt, the capital was moved from the central Napata southward to Meroe. Just as its ties with Egypt were disappearing, the Kingdom of Meroe developed new ties with the long-established African cultures farther south. The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Kush were then known as, the Ethiopians.

In the city of Meroe, the distinction between royalty and commoners was a clear one. The royalty occupied two-story stone palaces, while the common people lived in small, tightly packed sun-dried brick houses. The common people were involved in a variety of manufacturing activities including iron smelting and pottery making. The royalty were buried under pyramids similar to the Egyptian ones, but smaller in size.

There was a rather peculiar aspect of the political system of the kingdom of Meroe that left classical authors such as Herodotus and Diodorus somewhat astonished. At the time, the process of choosing a ruling king was commonly done via a thorough religious process conducted by priests and finalized by the king being selected by a god. The god-selected king was immediately honored in a god-like manner since to the people, the kingdom was entrusted to him by divine powers. The Meriotic political system on the other hand, chose the ruler by election, an approach that was quite innovative at that time. Napatan inscriptions give a detailed description of the procedures done and how the coronation ceremonies were conducted.

One of those accounts is that of King Amani-nete-yerike (431-405 BC). He says that, at the age of 41, he was elected by the leaders of his armies to be king. Right before his coronation, he had fought a war, and then he proceeded to Napata for the official coronation. At the royal palace in Napata, he received the crown of Ta-Seti, which officially confirmed his kingship. After that and as a matter of formality, he entered a temple for the ceremony where he addressed a statue or a shrine of the god and asked him to grant him kingship, to which the god would accept and bestow it upon him. The inscriptions and the sequence of events prove that the kingship selection process is purely based on the elections while the event of the king entering the temple was more of a ceremonial act rather than a decision-making event.

In another account by King Aspelta (593-568 BC) he says that he succeeded his brother, Anlamni, but rather than being ‘entitled’ to the kingship, he was elected among his royal brothers by a group of 24 military leaders and high civil officials. Aspelta then describes in detail the formal process of receiving his brother’s crown and entering the temple’s inner part where he found crowns and scepters of the preceding rulers. Similar accounts are documented in steles by other kings such as Harsiotef (404- 369 BC) and Nastasen (335 -310 BC).

As opposed to the Pharaonic and ancient Oriental systems of kingship, where the succession would follow a father-son pattern, Napata and Meroe’s system was based on electing the most suitable ruler among the royal lineage by the high officials and army leaders. This system eliminated the possibility of having an unsuitable successor, whether due to him being a minor, being unpopular or simply being unfit to the position and the duties that came along with it, as it was the case in other Kingdoms at the time.

King Anlamani also mentioned in his accounts the important role that the queen mother played at the election and coronation ceremonies of her son, showing that not only did she have high status, but a decisive influence as well. Later on, the queen-mothers or wives began to be more actively involved in the political power that at some point, Meroe was ruled by a line of queens, known in the Meroitic language as “Candaces”. The queens also conducted a rather unfamiliar and a complex adoption system, where the mother queen would adopt the wife of her son. This system defied the stagnation of the royal lineage by injecting fresh blood into the royal family.

The Kingdom of Kush continued to prosper on many levels. A glimpse of its monumental culture and heritage can be seen through the several erected monuments and tombs. It is said that Alexander the Great tried to invade Meroe, but he turned back upon seeing the size of its army.

Under the Kushite Kings, the city of Meroe continued to flourish due to two main reasons. The first is the peaceful trading relations it had with its neighboring lands and kingdoms, and the second and most important is the unique approach to developing its political structure, which resulted in political stability that lasted for more than four centuries.


Amanitore

Amanitore (c. 50 CE) was a Nubian Kandake, or queen regnant, of the ancient Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë, which also is referred to as Nubia in many ancient sources. Alternative spellings include Candace and Kentake. In Egyptian hieroglyphics the throne name of Amanitore reads as Merkare. Many Kandakes are described as warrior-queens who led forces in battle.

Kandake Amanitore is often mentioned as co-regent with Natakamani although it is unclear whether she was his wife or mother. [2]

Her royal palace was at Gebel Barkal in modern-day Sudan, which now is a UNESCO heritage site. The area of her rule was between the Nile and the Atbara rivers. [3]

She was part of the Meroitic historical period and her reign began in 1 BCE. The rule of her successor, Amanitaraqide, was complete by 50 CE. [1]

Amanitore is mentioned in a number of texts as a ruler. These include the temple at the Nubian capital of Napata in present-day Sudan, in a temple in Meroë near Shendi, again in Sudan, and at the Naqa Lion Temple. Images of Natakamani frequently include an image of Amanitore however, it could be that Amanitore was his mother rather than his wife. A Kandake was a powerful position in the hierarchy of Kush. The mothers would rule and create their sons as rulers, but they also deposed their own sons too. In fact, a Kandake could order the king to commit suicide to end his rule, an order that he was required to follow. [ citat nødvendig ]

Amanitore is buried in her own pyramid in Meroë. The tomb is approximately six metres square at its base, and not a pyramid in the mathematical sense.

Some sources say otherwise, but she is said to be mentioned in the Bible in the story about the conversion of the Ethiopian in Acts 8:26–40: [4]

And the angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, Get up, and go toward the south unto the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is desert. And he got up and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem to worship, was returning, and sitting in his chariot read Isaiah the prophet…. [5]

Amanitore was among the last great Kush builders. She was involved in restoring the large temple for Amun at Meroë and the Amun temple at Napata after it was demolished by the Romans. Reservoirs for the retention of water also were constructed at Meroë during her reign. [3] The two rulers also built Amun temples at Naqa and Amara.

The quantity of building that was completed during the middle part of the first century indicates that this was the most prosperous time in Meroitic history. [6] More than two hundred Nubian pyramids were built, most plundered in ancient times.

Her country was immediately south of what was ancient Egypt and shared its language in surviving texts. Other aspects of the culture differ significantly, but are not well known and others seem to have influenced the Ancient Egyptian culture—including religious influences. It was a wealthy country, having large resources of gold, and exported jewelry, exotic animals, and textiles.


The Candaces, warrior queens of Africa

S According to historians Herodotus, Strabo, and Diodorous we have proof of the existence of warrior queens in Africa. (Meroe). The queens were named Candace, a title that passed from queen to queen for many years (500 years). The word is a transcription of the Meroitic ktke or kdke, meaning "queen mother." So, All royal brides were Kdkes by definition. The queen mother ensured the line of succession and consolidated her power. She also played a leading role in choosing and crowning the new king. The Kushites did special honor to their queens by worshiping them as goddesses. These warrior women were great military tacticians and commanded on the ground. They were feared by the foreign armies of invaders from the northern regions. Even Alexander the Great was paralyzed by the fact of facing them.

The legend says that the Candace would not let him enter Ethiopia and warned him not to despise them because they were black. “We are whiter and brighter in our souls than the whiter among you. »She told them.
Then, she placed her armies and waited for the Macedonian conqueror on a war elephant. When he presented himself for battle, he saw the Black Queen's army stationed in a brilliant military formation in front of him… he stopped.
After studying the set of waiting warriors with deadly precision, he eventually realizes that challenging the kentakes could possibly be fatal to him.
So he turned his armies away from Nubia. We know that for a period of 1250 years (ending in 350 CE), the kingdom of Kush flourished as a unique civilization that remained deeply African. However, without an effort in archeology and a breakthrough in deciphering Meroitic writing, the world will never know the true glory of the kingdom of Kush and the magnificence of the Candacians .

One of the greatest warrior queens of ancient times was Majaji, who ruled the Lovedu ethnic group that was part of the Kushite Empire during the long centuries when the Kushites were at war with Rome. The Empire ceased to exist in 350 AD when Meroe, the center of Kush power, fell after numerous assaults by the Romans. Armed with a shield and a spear, Majaji commanded his warriors in battles. She would have fallen in the city of Meroe which she defended until death.

She was in the lineage of Ethiopian queens and military leaders, one of whom was Candace, also a descendant of Kush. The first Candace, led an army whose warriors were riding elephants. She stopped the invasion of Alexander the Great in Ethiopia in 332 BC. In 30 BC, Candace Amanirenas defeated an invasion of Patronius, a Roman governor of Egypt, and ransacked the city of Cyrene. In 937 AD Judith, a queen (Jewish?) Falasha, attacked Axum, the sacred capital of Ethiopia, killing all the inhabitants of that city including the descendants of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.


The Candaces of Meroe Timeline - History

& ldquoAmanirenas is best known as the queen who won favorable terms from Augustus Caesar (r. 27 BCE-14 CE) following the conflict known as the Meroitic War (27-22 BCE) between Kush and Rome. The war began in response to Kushite raiding parties making incursions into Roman Egypt. Rome had annexed Egypt as a province following the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and it quickly became one of the new empire&rsquos most critical territories as it supplied Rome with an abundance of grain. The Roman prefect of Egypt, Gaius Petronius responded to the raids by invading Kush around 22 BCE and destroying the city of Napata. Amanirenas was in no way cowed and retaliated with further aggression. She is depicted as a courageous queen, blind in one eye, and a skilled negotiator. Following the conflict, her control of the terms is evident in Rome&rsquos respect in the peace talks and an increase in trade between Rome and Meroe. Amanirenas had captured a number of statues from Egypt, among them many of Augustus, which she returned following the peace but the head of one she buried under the steps of a temple so that people would walk over Augustus in their daily visits. This is the famous Meroe Head now housed in the British Museum.&rdquo


Trade with Egypt

Nubians traded with Egypt from early in the Bronze Age. As early as 3000 BC, there was already trade from Nubia, south of Egypt, all along the Nile river to the Mediterranean Sea. The Nubians taught Egyptians to farm millet, and they sold them donkeys. They sold gold to the Egyptians. They also sold ivory, furs, and exotic live animals like elephants and lions. And they sold people as slaves.

Egypt in the Bronze Age What is ivory? History of slavery

Nubians also sold diorite, a hard black stone, and granite, for Egyptian statues, and jewelry stones like carnelian and agate.

More about granite

In return, the Nubians bought Egyptian cotton and linen cloth, glass, jewelry, perfume, and wine. Nubians also often used their profits to hire Egyptian architects and engineers, accountants and priests, to work on Nubian projects. About 1500 BC, the Egyptian pharaoh Hatshepsut was trading for gold, ivory, and furs with Ati, the Queen of Punt.

History of cotton What is linen? Who invented glass?

A single gazelle skin, skillfully slit to make a mesh skirt.


Warrior Queens of Nubia/Kush/Meroe

Amanirenas (also spelled Amanirena) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush.

The Romans themselves were intrigued by Aminarenas, whom one source described as “a masculine sort of woman, blind in one eye.” Too Much like the Amazons of myth, she was a warrior queen who commanded her own soldiers in battle, something which many of them might never have seen before. She was covered in gold bracelets, rings and more.

While such a thing may have been commonplace in other kingdoms, to the Romans, it was something new. And a request to treat with Augustus himself no doubt earned Candace Aminarenas respect from the Romans instead of engaging them in battle like other barbarians might have done, they commanded respect and gave it in return.

As the Romans may not have expected this, so they might not have expected a queen outside of Egypt who ruled over such a wealthy and powerful kingdom.

According to a legend recorded by a writer called Pseudo-Callisthenes, in 332 BC, Alexander the Great headed south of Egypt planning to conquer the kingdoms in the region of Nubia, or Kush.

Nubian Hathor-Headed Magic Crystal Amulet

743-712 BC From the Napatan Period, reign of Piye (Piankhy), found at el-Kurru, Sudan . The crystal ball amulet is surmounted by a gold head of Hathor crowned with disc and horns. The ball is bored vertically and has a gold disc at the base on which it stands. This probably used to contain substances believed to have magical properties. Piye was a Kushite king and founder of the 25th Dynasty who ruled Egypt from 753/752 BC to c. 722 BC -Egyptian Pharaoh

His plans were thwarted, however, by the warrior queen Candace of Meroe. She would not let him enter Ethiopia and warned him not to despise them because they were black for, “We are whiter and brighter in our souls than the rest of you.”

Alexander heeded her advice and headed for Egypt. But this is only a tale? Alexander never ventured into Nubia.

Where is Nubia?
Nubia is located in Northeast Africa within the political boundaries of modern Sudan.

Alternative Names for Nubia:
Three terms were used in ancient sources to refer to Nubia these are Ethiopia, Kush, Nubia, and recently Sudan. Nubia is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea and the Ethiopian Highlands to the east, the Sahara and Chad to the west, and South Sudan to the south.

Who are the Nubians?
Nubians are the ancestors of modern Northern Sudanese people. According to the Biblical Table of Nations, the Nubians/ Kushites are the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, and according to the system of linguistic classification (which is increasingly less used by modern historians) the modern Nubian language is classified to be within the Afro-Asiatic languages of North Africa. Recently, Nubain has been commonly identified with the Eastern-Sudanic language family.

Her full name and title was Amnirense qore li kdwe li (“Ameniras, Qore and Kandake”)

She reigned from about 40 BCE to 10 BCE. She is one of the most famous kandakes, because of her role leading Kushite armies against the Romans from in a war that lasted five years, from 27 BCE to 22 BCE. After an initial victory when the Kushites attacked Roman Egypt, they were driven out of Egypt by Gaius Petronius and the Romans established a new frontier at Hiere Sycaminos (Maharraqa). Amanirenas was described as brave, and blind in one eye.

Meroitic inscriptions give Amanirenas the title of qore as well as kandake suggesting that she was a ruling queen. She is usually considered to be the queen referred to as “Candace” in Strabo’s account of the Meroitic war against the Roman Empire. Her name is associated with those of Teriteqas and Akinidad. The scheme first proposed by Hintze suggests that King Teriteqas died shortly after the beginning of the war. She was succeeded by Akinidad (possibly the son of Teriteqas) who continued the campaign with his mother Amanirenas. Akinidad died at Dakka c.24BC.

When Aelius Gallus, the Prefect, or chief magistrate, of Egypt, was absent on a campaign in Arabia in 24 BC, the Kushites launched an attack on Egypt. Amanirenas and Akinidad defeated Roman forces at Syene and Philae, and drove the Jews from Elephantine Island.They returned to Kush with prisoners and loot, including several statues of Emperor Augustus.

Dates are definite and accurate for the Kushite rulers of the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, when Egypt was invaded and absorbed by the Kushite Empire. The dates also are certain for kings & Queens Aspelta, Arakamani, Nastasen, and for the Kandakes Shanakdakhete, Amanirenas, Amanishakheto, Amanitore, and Amanikhatashan.

The early part of the chronology is incomplete. The graves and pyramid burials in Sudan consist of remains of at least fourteen monarchs of the Kushite Empire preceding Piankhi, the earliest tomb of which dates from about 1020 BCE. Two of these are known: Alara and Kashta, who immediately preceded Piankhi. It also is possible that another of the burials may have been of Aserkamani, who was living in 950 BCE and who carried out expeditions in Egypt and along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa.

Tomb of a Nubian Queen, subterranean chamber under pyramidal superstructure.

Meroe, beginning of the 4th century BC. archaeology Sudan pyramid.

Amanirenas (c. 55 BC to c. 10 BC) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush. She was a ruling queen, not the spouse of a ruler, and was a fierce military leader. The Kushites attacked Roman occupied Egypt and conquered- the spoils brought back from war included prisoners, loot, and several statues of Emperor Augustus. Amanirenas was brave, fierce, and blind in one eye.

The Nile River

The Nile River is an international river that flows through 11 countries that include Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt.

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Meroe

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Meroe, city of ancient Cush (Kush) the ruins of which are located on the east bank of the Nile about 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Kabūshīyah in the present-day Sudan Meroe is also the name of the area surrounding the city.

The 25th, or “Ethiopian,” dynasty of ancient Egypt is believed to have retired to Cush after 656 bc and established itself at Meroe, where it fostered an Egypto-Cushite culture that through the subsequent 1,000 years became increasingly cut off from its source. Meroe was the southern administrative centre for the kingdom of Cush, beginning about 750 bc , at a time when Napata was still its capital. After the sack of Napata in about 590 by the Egyptian pharaoh Psamtik II, Meroe became the capital of the kingdom and developed into a wide and prosperous area. It survived a Roman invasion—though its status was lowered thereby—but it later declined in the face of raiding tribes, to fall at the more determined invasions of the Aksumite armies, probably under Ella-Amida, whose reign ended between about ad 320 and 325.

Excavations of Meroe, begun in 1902, have revealed the streets and buildings of a great and populous city. The chief features are a riverbank quay, with palaces nearby, and a great temple of Amon.


Se videoen: Meroe (Januar 2022).