Historie Podcasts

Alister Watson

Alister Watson

Alister Watson blev født i Southend-on-Sea den 2. maj 1908. Han gik på Winchester School og studerede matematik på Kings College. Mens han var på Cambridge University sluttede han sig til Cambridge Apostles. (1) Andre medlemmer gennem årene havde inkluderet Guy Burgess, Michael Straight, Anthony Blunt, Julian Bell, Leo Long og Peter Ashby. Det er blevet påpeget af Michael Kitson, at gruppens værdier omfattede intellektkulten for egen skyld, tro på tankefrihed og ytringsfrihed uanset de konklusioner, som denne frihed kan føre til, og benægtelse af alle moralske begrænsninger andet end loyalitet over for venner. (2)

Watson sluttede sig til Cambridge University Socialist Society (CUSS), og de fleste af hans nye venner havde venstreorienterede holdninger. Dette omfattede Kim Philby, Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean og James Klugmann. Isaiah Berlin hævdede, at han var en ivrig marxist. Blunt huskede senere: "Jeg lærte min marxistiske teori ved Alisters fødder". (3)

Watson var en entusiastisk tilhænger af William Blakes arbejde. På universitetet skrev han en artikel til den første udgave af Venture. Watson hævdede, at Blake var "den lidenskabelige fjende af de traditionelle ideer om bedømmelse af menneskelige handlinger og anliggender ud fra etiske og moralske filosofier." Watson påpegede, at Blake var blevet pillet "af hans tids skeptiske og afslappede herrer," hvis definition af fornuften "ikke gjaldt for videnskabelig undersøgelse, men for moralsk tanke - og det er der stadig." (4)

Watson blev til sidst et hemmeligt medlem af Storbritanniens kommunistparti. Ifølge en kilde opfyldte han aldrig sit akademiske potentiale: "I Cambridge blev han betragtet som en strålende studerende bestemt til den højeste akademiske hædersbevisning, indtil hans afhandling viste sig at indeholde en massiv grundlæggende fejl. Han undlod at opnå et stipendium og tog en job i Admiralitetet i stedet. Efter service i Radar og Signal Etablering af Søværnet blev han chef for Submarine Detection Research Section hos ARL. Det var et af de mest hemmelige og vigtige job i hele NATOs forsvarsinstitution, men det var uklart arbejde, især for en, der havde lovet så meget i sin ungdom. " (5)

Det er blevet hævdet, at Watson var en del af spionnetværket i Cambridge, der blev rekrutteret af Arnold Deutsch og omfattede Kim Philby, Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean og John Cairncross. Efter at Blunt tilstod sine forbrydelser, nægtede Roger Hollis at tillade sine betjente at afhøre Watson. Efter at Hollis gik på pension, gav hans efterfølger, Martin Furnival Jones, tilladelse til at blive interviewet af MI5. Watson indrømmede, at han havde mødt Deutsch flere gange. Han tilstod også at kende tre andre sovjetiske agenter, Yuri Modin, Sergei Kondrashev og Nikolai Karpekov, men nægtede at give nogen af ​​dem hemmelige oplysninger.

Peter Wright arrangerede et fælles møde med Blunt. Wright forsøgte at overtale Blunt til at navngive Watson som en spion. Han nægtede at gøre det, men da Wright foreslog, at han ville få immunitet, hvis han tilstod, vendte Watson sig til Blunt og sagde: "Du har været sådan en succes, Anthony, og alligevel var det mig, der var det store håb i Cambridge . Cambridge var hele mit liv, men jeg var nødt til at gå i hemmeligt arbejde, og nu har det ødelagt mit liv. "

Wright hævder i sin bog, Spycatcher (1987): "Ingen, der lyttede til afhøringen eller studerede udskrifterne, var i tvivl om, at Watson havde været en spion, sandsynligvis siden 1938. I betragtning af hans adgang til antisubmarine-detekteringsforskning var han efter min mening især, afsluttede sagen. Watson fortalte en lang historie om Kondrashev. Han havde mødt ham, men var ligeglad med ham. Han beskrev Kondrashev i detaljer. Han var for borgerlig, hævdede Watson. Han bar flanelbukser og en blå blazer og gik en puddel. De havde en række, og de stoppede med at mødes. "

Wright hævder, at dette passer ind i, hvad den sovjetiske afhopper, Anatoli Golitsin, havde fortalt til MI5. "Han (Golitsin) sagde, at Kondrashev blev sendt til Storbritannien for at køre to meget vigtige spioner - en i flåden og en i MI6. MI6 -spionen var bestemt George Blake ... Golitsin sagde, at Kondrashev faldt sammen med flådespionen. Spionen protesterede til hans borgerlige vaner og nægtede at møde ham. Golitsin mindede om, at Korovin, den tidligere London -KGB -beboer, som følge heraf blev tvunget til at vende tilbage til London for at erstatte Kondrashev som flådens spionkontroller. Det var naturligvis Watson. " (6)

Alister Watson døde i Haslemere i 1981.

Efter at jeg havde mødt Blunt i et år, dukkede et oplagt mønster op. Jeg var i stand til at drille tingene ud af ham - for det meste pude -snak, han havde samlet fra Guy Burgess. Han hævdede en forfatter på Tiderne var blevet henvendt. Jeg sporede ham, og han bekræftede, at Burgess havde forsøgt at rekruttere ham, men at han afviste ham, bange for konsekvenserne af at blive fanget. En anden kontakt, som Blunt identificerede, var Tom Wylie, en krigskontorist, der længe er død. Wylie, sagde Blunt, plejede at lade Burgess se alt, hvad der kom i hans hænder. Men selvom Blunt under pres udvidede sine oplysninger, pegede det altid på dem, der enten var døde, for længst pensionerede eller ellers komfortabelt ude af hemmelig adgang og fare.

Jeg vidste, at Blunt må kende til andre, der ikke var pensionister, som stadig havde adgang. Det var de mennesker, han beskyttede. Men hvordan kunne jeg identificere dem? Jeg besluttede at udarbejde lister over alle dem, der af interviewpersoner blev nævnt for at have noteret sig venstreorienterede synspunkter før krigen, eller som interviewpersonerne mente sandsynligvis ville have været målet for en ansættelsesmetode fra Guy Burgess.

Et navn skilte sig ud over alle de andre: Alister Watson. Berlin nævnte ham, forfatteren Arthur Marshall nævnte ham, Tess Rothschild nævnte ham. Han var, alle sagde, en ivrig marxist i Cambridge i 1930'erne, en apostel og en nær ven af ​​både Blunt og Burgess. Burgess, så vidt de huskede, beundrede ham intenst i løbet af 1930'erne-et sikkert tegn på, at han sandsynligvis var blevet kontaktet.

Jeg begyndte at stille spørgsmål til hans baggrund. Jeg kendte ham ganske godt fra krigen. Han arbejdede i øjeblikket som videnskabsmand i Admiralty Research Laboratory og boede faktisk i to år sammen med min bror i Bristol. Jeg plejede aldrig Watson dengang. Han var høj og tynd med et klemt, gedeagtigt ansigt og en mærkelig påvirket tåspids. Watson betragtede sig selv som en af ​​de største teoretiske fysikere i sin tid, men alligevel syntes de fleste af hans kolleger, at hans greb om praktisk arbejde var tydelig rebisk, og at han havde begået alvorlige fejl i teoretisk arbejde. Han var, synes jeg, lidt af en bedrageri.

Watson var en fiasko. I Cambridge blev han betragtet som en strålende studerende, bestemt til den højeste akademiske hædersbevisning, indtil hans afhandling viste sig at indeholde en massiv grundlæggende fejl. Det var et af de mest hemmelige og vigtige job i hele NATOs forsvarsinstitution, men det var uklart arbejde, især for en, der havde lovet så meget i sin ungdom.

I Cambridge var Watson en ivrig marxist; mange af dem, jeg interviewede, beskrev ham faktisk som "ypperstepræsten" i marxistisk teori blandt apostlene. Marxismen havde en smuk logik, et altomfattende svar på ethvert spørgsmål, som betagede ham. Han blev tiltrukket af Das Kapital som andre er tiltrukket af Bibelen, og som en prædikant manke, begyndte han at forkynde trosbekendelsen blandt sine venner, især da hans håb om en akademisk karriere begyndte at falme. Blunt indrømmede senere, at Watson skolede ham i marxisme.

Da jeg studerede hans sag, virkede hans afgang fra Cambridge mig som den mest ejendommelige-lige på tidspunktet for München, da radikal utilfredshed med virksomheden var på sit højeste. Det bar alle kendetegnene ved Burgess 'og Philbys flytning til højre i samme periode. Der var en anden interesse. Victor Rothschild skrev et brev til Dick White i 1951, der foreslog, at Watson skulle undersøges i lyset af hans kommunistiske tilhørsforhold i 1930'erne. Uforklarligt var Victor's forslag aldrig blevet forfulgt, og siden da var Watson med succes blevet undersøgt ikke mindre end tre gange og nævnte ikke sin politiske baggrund.

Jeg besluttede at prøve Watsons navn på Blunt på vores næste møde, jeg vidste, at det ville være spild af tid at gå direkte til sagen, jeg udarbejdede en liste over alle kendte medlemmer af apostlene, herunder Watson, og bad ham om at vælge dem, han havde vidst, eller følte, at jeg skulle interessere mig for. Han gik ned på listen, men nævnte ikke Watson.

"Hvad med Alister?" Spurgte jeg ham endelig.

"Nej," sagde Blunt bestemt, "han er ikke relevant."

Tiden var inde til at konfrontere Blunt. Jeg fortalte ham, at han løj igen, at han lige så godt som jeg vidste, at Watson var en nær ven og medkommunist i Cambridge. Blunts tic startede igen. Ja, det var sandt, indrømmede han. De var venner. De så stadig hinanden regelmæssigt ved apostle -middage og lignende, men han havde ikke rekrutteret ham, og det havde Guy heller ikke, så vidt han vidste.

Alister, sagde han, var en tragisk skikkelse, hvis liv var gået frygteligt galt. Han var en mand, der lovede så meget, men alligevel havde opnået så lidt, hvorimod hans bachelor -venner, ligesom Blunt selv og Turing, havde opnået eminence, og i Turings tilfælde udødelighed.

Cambridge blev i stigende grad politiseret til venstre i slutningen af ​​tyverne. Arbejdsklubmedlemskabet var steget til over to hundrede, og der var endda et vokalt kommunistisk samfund på tredive. Selvom dette ikke beviser, at Blunt var marxist i løbet af sine bachelorår, tyder det på en langt mere kraftfuld venstreorienteret politisk understrøm blandt sine samtidige, end han nogensinde indrømmede.

Dette gjaldt især for forskere som Alister Watson, der senere sluttede sig til Cambridge kommunistparti. Først efter Blunts hemmelige tilståelse i 1963 blev Watson afhørt af MI5 mistanke om, at også han var blevet rekrutteret af Sovjet. Der blev ikke udtrukket nogen tilståelse, men dette lagde ikke til grund for den stærke mistanke om, at Watson, en videnskabsmand, senere arbejdede på tophemmelige ubåddetekteringssystemer, var blevet en anden af ​​det sovjetiske netværk i løbet af sine Cambridge-år.

Ved at fjerne de intellektuelle spor, der kan have ført både Watson og Blunt til Marx, er en fælles faktor deres bachelor -interesse i William Blakes profetiske filosofi. Watson, viser det sig, skrev hovedartiklen i det første nummer af Venture om "Blakes visdom". Englands ikonoklastmaler/digter fra det attende århundrede blev rost fyldet som "den lidenskabelige fjende af de traditionelle ideer om bedømmelse af menneskelige handlinger og anliggender af etiske og moralske filosofier." Ifølge Watsons fortolkning, som Blunt senere afspejlede i sin egen publicerede undersøgelse, satte Blake studiet af videnskab "ved siden af ​​udøvelsen af ​​kunst som et af de største objekter i menneskeliv."

I Venture artikel, der formodentlig støttede Blunt ved at give den en så fremtrædende plads, påpegede Watson, at Blake var blevet pillet "af hans tids skeptiske og afslappede herrer", hvis definition af fornuften "ikke gjaldt videnskabelig undersøgelse, men moralsk tanke - og det er der stadig. " Denne erklæring udtrykker klart forfatterens stærke personlige overbevisning om, at selv i det tyvende århundrede var det reaktionære britiske etablissement stadig fordomsfuldt over for videnskabsfolk og visioner.

(1) John Costello, Mask af forræderi (1988) side 145

(2) Michael Kitson, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(3) Peter Wright, Spycatcher (1987) side 253

(4) Alister Watson, Venture (1928)

(5) Peter Wright, Spycatcher (1987) side 252

(6) John Costello, Mask af forræderi (1988) side 620

(7) Peter Wright, Spycatcher (1987) side 256 og 257


Kemisk struktur af DNA opdaget

Den 28. februar 1953 vidste Cambridge University -forskere James D. Watson og Francis H.C. Crick meddeler, at de har bestemt dobbelt-helix-strukturen af ​​DNA, molekylet, der indeholder menneskelige gener. Molekylærbiologerne blev hjulpet betydeligt af arbejdet fra en anden DNA -forsker, Rosalind Franklin, selvom hun ikke er inkluderet i meddelelsen, og hun delte heller ikke den efterfølgende Nobelpris for det.

Selvom DNA — -kort for deoxyribonukleinsyre — blev opdaget i 1869, blev dens afgørende rolle ved bestemmelse af genetisk arv ikke demonstreret før i 1943. I begyndelsen af ​​1950'erne var Watson og Crick kun to af mange forskere, der arbejdede med at finde ud af DNA -strukturen. Californiens kemiker Linus Pauling foreslog en forkert model i begyndelsen af ​​1953, hvilket fik Watson og Crick til at prøve at slå Pauling i sit eget spil.  

Om morgenen den 28. februar bestemte de, at strukturen af ​​DNA var en dobbelt-helix-polymer eller en spiral af to DNA-tråde, der hver indeholdt en lang kæde af monomernukleotider, viklet om hinanden. Ifølge deres fund replikerede DNA sig ved at adskille i individuelle tråde, som hver blev skabelonen for en ny dobbelt helix. I sin bedst sælgende bog, The Double Helix (1968), hævdede Watson senere, at Crick annoncerede opdagelsen ved at gå ind i den nærliggende Eagle Pub og udbrænde, at “we havde fundet livets hemmelighed. ” Sandheden var ikke så langt væk, som Watson og Crick havde løst et grundlæggende videnskabs mysterium – hvordan det var muligt for genetiske instruktioner at blive holdt inde i organismer og gå fra generation til generation.

Watson og Crick ’s løsning blev formelt annonceret den 25. april 1953 efter offentliggørelsen i denne måneds udgave af Natur magasin. Artiklen revolutionerede studiet af biologi og medicin. Blandt de udviklinger, der fulgte direkte heraf, var præ-natal screening for sygdomsgener genetisk manipulerede fødevarer evnen til at identificere menneskelige rester det rationelle design af behandlinger for sygdomme som AIDS og den nøjagtige test af fysiske beviser for at dømme eller friholde kriminelle.

Crick og Watson havde senere et udfald over Watson ’s bog, som Crick følte forkert fremstilling af deres samarbejde og forrådte deres venskab.  

En større kontrovers opstod om brugen af ​​Watson og Crick af arbejde udført af en anden DNA -forsker, Rosalind Franklin. Kollega Maurice Wilkins viste Watson og Crick Franklin & aposs røntgenfotografisk arbejde til Watson lige før han og Crick gjorde deres berømte opdagelse. Billedet   fastslog, at DNA   -molekylet eksisterede i en spiralformet form.   Da Crick og Watson vandt Nobelprisen i 1962, delte de det med Wilkins. Franklin, der døde i 1958 af kræft i æggestokkene og dermed ikke var berettiget til prisen, fik aldrig kendskab til den rolle, hendes fotos spillede i det historiske videnskabelige gennembrud.


Watson historie, familiekryds og våbenskjold

Watson er et gammelt angelsaksisk navn, der stammer fra Hvad, som er en diminutiv form for Walter. Dette gammeltyske navn, som bogstaveligt betyder mægtige hær, blev introduceret i England under Edvard Bekenders regeringstid og blev et af de mest populære personlige navne i det land efter den normanniske erobring i 1066. Efternavnet indeholder også endelsen -søn, som afløste andre patronymiske suffikser i popularitet i løbet af 1300 -tallet og var mest populær i det nordlige England.

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Tidlig oprindelse af Watson -familien

Efternavnet Watson blev først fundet i amtet Rutland, hvor de var herrer i herregården i Rockingham, fra oldtiden. Dette var hjemsted for & kvoteborg blev rejst af William I. på toppen af ​​en bakke for at beskytte de omfattende jernværker på det tidspunkt, der blev udført i de tilstødende skove. Under krigen i Charles I.'s regeringstid blev slottet garnisoneret for kongen af ​​Sir Lewis Watson, bagefter skabt Lord Rockingham og blev belejret af de parlamentariske styrker, der på samme tid ødelagde tårnet og en del af kirkeskibet kirken: de eneste rester af slottet er de to massive bastioner, der forsvarede indgangsporten. & quot [1]

Våbenskjold og efternavn historiepakke

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Tidlig historie om familien Watson

Denne webside viser kun et lille uddrag af vores Watson -forskning. Yderligere 136 ord (10 linjer tekst), der dækker årene 1392, 1450, 1493, 1593, 1685, 1620, 1686, 1617, 1683, 1659, 1660, 1683, 1637, 1717, 1687, 1699, 1687, 1710, 1686, 1722, 1600, 1601, 1630 og er inkluderet under emnet Early Watson History i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

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Watson stavevarianter

Watson er blevet stavet på mange forskellige måder. Inden engelsk stavemåde blev standardiseret i løbet af de sidste par hundrede år, var stavningsvariationer i navne en almindelig begivenhed. Da det engelske sprog ændrede sig i middelalderen og absorberede stykker latin og fransk samt andre sprog, ændrede stavningen af ​​folks navne sig også betydeligt, selv over et enkelt liv. Mange variationer af navnet Watson er fundet, herunder Wattson, Walterson, MacWattie og andre.

Tidlige bemærkninger fra Watson -familien (før 1700)

Fremtrædende medlemmer af familien inkluderer jarl af Rockingham Thomas Watson (ca. 1620-1686), en engelsk, nonkonformistisk, puritansk prædikant og forfatter Daniel Watson (c 1617-1683), en engelsk advokat og politiker, parlamentsmedlem for Lichfield i 1659 , Optager af Newcastle-under-Lyme (1660-1683) Thomas Watson (1637-1717), en engelsk præst, biskop i St. Davids (1687-1699) Samuel Watson (fl. C.1687-c.1710), en medarbejder af Isaac Newton opfandt han 5 minutters repeater, lavede det første stopur og et ur til kong Charles II og Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes (1686-1722), et britisk medlem af.
Yderligere 86 ord (6 tekstlinjer) er inkluderet under emnet Early Watson Notables i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

Migration af familien Watson til Irland

Nogle af Watson -familien flyttede til Irland, men dette emne er ikke dækket i dette uddrag.
Yderligere 90 ord (6 tekstlinjer) om deres liv i Irland er inkluderet i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

Watson migration +

Nogle af de første nybyggere af dette efternavn var:

Watson Settlers i USA i det 17. århundrede
  • John Watson, der bosatte sig i Virginia i 1620
  • George Watson, der ankom til Plymouth, Massachusetts i 1631 [2]
  • Abraham, Alice, Elizabeth, Francis, Joe, Margaret og William Watson, alle, der bosatte sig i Virginia i 1635
  • Alice Watson, 30 år, der landede i Virginia i 1635 [2]
  • Christopher Watson, 21 år, der ankom til St. Christopher i 1635 [2]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)
Watson Settlers i USA i det 18. århundrede
  • Anna Watson, der ankom til Philadelphia, Pennsylvania i 1701 [2]
  • Charles Watson, der landede i New England i 1711 [2]
  • George Watson, der bosatte sig i Georgien i 1775 med sin kone og fire børn
  • Andrew Watson, 21 år, der ankom til Georgien i 1775 [2]
  • Ann Watson, der landede i Pennsylvania i 1776 [2]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)
Watson Settlers i USA i det 19. århundrede
  • Daniel Watson, 35 år, der landede i North Carolina i 1812 [2]
  • Edward William Watson, 29 år, der landede i St Louis, Missouri i 1847 [2]
  • Felton Watson, 33 år, der landede i St Louis, Missouri i 1848 [2]
  • Esther Watson, der ankom til Illinois i 1850 [2]
  • Elizabeth Watson, der ankom til New Orleans, La i 1852 [2]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)

Watson -migration til Canada +

Nogle af de første nybyggere af dette efternavn var:

Watson Settlers i Canada i det 18. århundrede
  • Henry Watson, der landede i Nova Scotia i 1749
  • Brooks Watson, der landede i Nova Scotia i 1750
  • Francis Watson, 18 år, der landede i Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia i 1775
  • Alexander Watson U.E. der bosatte sig i Canada c. 1784 [3]
  • John Watson U.E. (f. 1747) født i New York, USA, der bosatte sig i Carleton [Saint John City], New Brunswick ca. 1784 døde han i 1846 [3]
Watson Settlers i Canada i det 19. århundrede
  • Margaret Watson, 16 år, der ankom til Saint John, New Brunswick ombord på skibet & quotSalus & quot i 1833
  • James Watson, 3 år, der ankom til Saint John, New Brunswick ombord på skibet & quotSalus & quot i 1833
  • Rick Watson, 2 år, der ankom til Saint John, New Brunswick ombord på skibet & quotSalus & quot i 1833
  • James Watson, 18 år, der ankom til Saint John, New Brunswick ombord på skibet & quotRanger & quot i 1834
  • John Watson, 17 år, der ankom til Saint John, New Brunswick ombord på skibet & quotRanger & quot i 1834
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)

Watson -migration til Australien +

Emigration til Australien fulgte de første flåder af dømte, håndværkere og tidlige bosættere. Tidlige immigranter omfatter:

Watson Settlers i Australien i det 19. århundrede
  • James Watson, engelsk fange fra York, der blev transporteret ombord på & quotAnn & quot i august 1809, bosatte sig i New South Wales, Australien [4]
  • Richard Watson, engelsk fange fra Lancaster, der blev transporteret ombord på & quotAnn & quot i august 1809 og bosatte sig i New South Wales, Australien [4]
  • William Watson, engelsk fange fra Middlesex, der blev transporteret ombord på & quotAgamemnon & quot den 22. april 1820, bosatte sig i New South Wales, Australien [5]
  • Edward Watson, engelsk fange fra Hertford, der blev transporteret ombord på & quotAdamant & quot den 16. marts 1821, bosatte sig i New South Wales, Australien [6]
  • George Watson, engelsk fange fra Middlesex, der blev transporteret ombord på & quotArab & quot den 3. juli 1822 og bosatte sig i Van Diemens Land, Australien [7]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)

Watson -migration til New Zealand +

Emigrationen til New Zealand fulgte i de europæiske opdagelsesrejsendes fodspor, såsom kaptajn Cook (1769-70): først kom sælere, hvalfangere, missionærer og handlende. I 1838 var det britiske New Zealand Company begyndt at købe jord fra maoristammerne og sælge det til nybyggere, og efter Waitangi -traktaten i 1840 tog mange britiske familier ud på den hårde seks måneders rejse fra Storbritannien til Aotearoa for at starte et nyt liv. Tidlige immigranter omfatter:

Watson Settlers i New Zealand i det 19. århundrede
  • Kaptajn Watson, australsk bosætter, der rejser fra Sydney ombord på skibet & quotDiana & ankommer til Auckland, New Zealand den 11. juli 1840 [8]
  • Mr. Watson, britisk nybygger, der rejser fra London ombord på skibet & quotHarrington & quot, ankommer til Wellington, New Zealand den 15. juni 1841 [8]
  • T. H. Watson, der ankom til Wellington, New Zealand ombord på skibet & quotHarrington & quot i 1841
  • Louisa Watson, der ankom til Port Nicholson ombord på skibet & quotJane & quot i 1841
  • James Watson, der landede i Auckland, New Zealand i 1841
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)

Samtidsnotater af navnet Watson (post 1700) +

  • Thomas John Watson Jr. (1914-1993), præsident for IBM fra 1952-1971 og modtager af Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • John Christian Watson (1867-1941), australsk politiker, Australiens tredje premierminister i 1904
  • Lloyd Watson (1949-2019), engelsk rock- og bluesguitarist
  • Clifford H. & quotCliff & quot Watson (1940-2018), engelsk professionel rugby league fodboldspiller
  • Moray Watson (1928-2017), engelsk skuespiller
  • Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson (f. 1990), engelsk skuespillerinde og model, bedst kendt for sin rolle som Hermione Granger i Harry Potter -filmserien
  • George Neville Watson (1886-1965), engelsk matematiker
  • Sir John William Watson (1858-1935), engelsk digter
  • Foster Watson (1860-1929), engelsk historiker
  • William Watson, britisk sheriff, havde den fælles stilling som sheriff i Nottingham, England fra 1633 til 1634
  • . (Yderligere 34 bemærkninger er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)

Historiske begivenheder for Watson -familien +

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Fru Isobel Watson (1914-1979), New Zealander-passager, fra Mount Albert, North Island, New Zealand ombord på Air New Zealand Flight 901 til en Antarktis sightseeingflyvning, da den fløj ind på Mount Erebus, hun døde i styrtet [9]
  • Miss Katerine Watson (1915-1979), New Zealander-passager, fra Wellington, North Island, New Zealand ombord på Air New Zealand Flight 901 til en sightseeingflyvning i Antarktis, da den fløj ind på Mount Erebus, hun døde i styrtet [9]
Kejserinde for Irland
  • Fru Eliza Edith Watson (1871-1914), canadisk passager i tredje klasse fra Toronto, Ontario, Canada, der rejste ombord på kejserinden i Irland og døde i forliset [10]
Fly TWA 800
  • Jill Victoria Watson (1964-1996), fra Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, amerikansk arkitekt, der flyver ombord på flyvning TWA 800 fra J.F.K. Lufthavn, New York til Leonardo da Vinci Lufthavn, Rom, da flyet styrtede ned efter start, hun døde i styrtet [11]
  • Miss. Jacqueline Alexis Watson (1978-1996), fra Montoursville, Pennsylvania, USA, amerikansk studerende fra Montoursville, der flyver ombord på fly TWA 800 fra J.F.K. Lufthavn, New York til Leonardo da Vinci Lufthavn, Rom, da flyet styrtede ned efter start, hun døde i styrtet [11]
Halifax eksplosion
  • Miss Alice   Watson (1912-1917), canadisk bosiddende fra Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, der døde i eksplosionen [12]
  • William R   Watson (1877-1917), canadisk bosiddende fra Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, der døde i eksplosionen [12]
  • Mr. Robert   Watson, canadisk bosiddende fra Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, der døde i eksplosionen [12]
  • Mr. Jack   Watson (1898-1917), canadisk bosiddende fra Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, der døde i eksplosionen [12]
  • Edward   Watson (1899-1917), canadisk bosiddende fra Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, der døde i eksplosionen [12]
HMS hætte
  • Robert Watson (f. 1920), irsk dygtig sømand, der tjente på Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve fra Belfast, County Antrim, Irland, der sejlede i kamp og døde i forliset [13]
  • Alexander Watson (f. 1919), Scottish Able Seaman, der tjente i Royal Navy Reserve fra Cromarty, Ross-shire, Skotland, som sejlede i kamp og døde i forliset [13]
  • John C Watson (f. 1913), engelsk dygtig sømand, der tjente for Royal Navy fra Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, som sejlede ind i kamp og døde i forliset [13]
  • Mr. Harry Watson (f. 1904), engelsk chefstoker, der tjente for Royal Navy fra Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, som sejlede i kamp og døde i den synkende [13]
HMS Prins af Wales
  • Percy Watson, britisk dygtig sømand, der sejlede i kamp på HMS Prince of Wales og overlevede den synkende [14]
  • Mr. W Watson, britisk løjtnant (E), der sejlede i kamp på HMS Prince of Wales og overlevede den synkende [14]
HMS frastødning
  • Mr. Rennie Watson, britisk Coder, der sejlede i kamp på HMS Repulse og overlevede den synkende [15]
  • Mr. John Louie Colclough Watson, britisk Midshipman & quotS & quot, der sejlede i kamp på HMS Repulse og døde i forliset [15]
  • Mr. Sidney Watson, & quotGeordie & quot; engelsk underofficer Gunner fra Newcastle, England, der sejlede i kamp på HMS Repulse og overlevede den synkende [15]
HMS Royal Oak
  • William Watson (1913-1939), britisk førende Stoker med Royal Navy ombord på HMS Royal Oak, da hun blev torpederet af U-47 og sænket, han døde i forliset [16]
  • Reginald Hugh Watson (1919-1939), British Able Seaman med Royal Navy ombord på HMS Royal Oak, da hun blev torpederet af U-47 og sank, han døde i forliset [16]
  • James Watson (d. 1939), britisk Stoker 1. klasse med Royal Navy ombord på HMS Royal Oak, da hun blev torpederet af U-47 og sænket, han døde i forliset [16]
  • George Watson (d. 1939), britisk sømand med Royal Navy ombord på HMS Royal Oak, da hun blev torpederet af U-47 og sænket, han døde i den synkende [16]
Lady of the Lake
  • William Watson (f. 1813), irsk arbejder fra Strabane, Nordirland, der sejlede ombord på "Lady of the Lake" fra Greenock, Skotland den 8. april 1833 til Quebec, Canada, da skibet ramte is og sank ved Newfoundlands kyst på den 11. maj 1833, og han døde i forliset
RMS Lusitania
  • Fru Kate Watson, canadisk 3. klasse passager fra Seaforth, Canada, der sejlede ombord på RMS Lusitania og døde i den synkende [17]
  • Fru Katherine Watson, engelsk 1. klasse passager fra England, der sejlede ombord på RMS Lusitania og døde i den synkende [17]
RMS Titanic
  • Ennis Hastings Watson (d. 1912), 15 år, irsk elektrikerlærling fra Belfast, Irland, der arbejdede ombord på RMS Titanic og døde i forliset [18]
  • W. Watson (d. 1912), 27 år, engelsk brandmand/stoker fra Southampton, Hampshire, der arbejdede ombord på RMS Titanic og døde i forliset [18]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Howard L. Watson, amerikansk Boatswain's Mate First Class, der arbejdede ombord på skibet "Arizona", da hun sank under det japanske angreb på Pearl Harbor den 7. december 1941, han overlevede den synkende [19]
  • William Lafayette Watson, amerikansk brandmand tredje klasse fra Florida, USA, der arbejdede ombord på skibet & quotUSS Arizona & quot; da hun sank under det japanske angreb på Pearl Harbor den 7. december 1941, døde han i den synkende [19]

Relaterede historier +

Watson Motto +

Mottoet var oprindeligt et krigsrop eller slogan. Mottoer begyndte først at blive vist med våben i det 14. og 15. århundrede, men blev først brugt i det 17. århundrede. Således indeholder de ældste våbenskjolde generelt ikke et motto. Mottoer indgår sjældent i bevilling af våben: Under de fleste heraldiske myndigheder er et motto en valgfri komponent i våbenskjoldet og kan tilføjes eller ændres efter behag mange familier har valgt ikke at vise et motto.

Motto: Mea gloria fides
Motto Oversættelse: Troskab er min herlighed.


Vores historie

Det er min fornøjelse at fejre A.S. Watson Groups 180 -års jubilæum med jer alle!

Etableret i 1841, er vi vokset fra kun en lille apotek til verdens største internationale sundheds- og#038 skønhedsforhandler, der driver over 16.000 butikker på 27 markeder. SOM. Watson Group er en af ​​de længst stående virksomheder i Hong Kong, og muligvis endda i verden.

Vores over 140.000 medarbejdere betjener 5,9 milliarder kunder hvert år. Så mange små interaktioner og historier bag kulisserne har været med til at gøre A.S. Watson Group, hvad det i dag ikke bare er en succesrig virksomhed, men en meget elsket del af menneskers liv og deres lokalsamfund.

Det følgende er kærlige øjeblikke og rørende historier fra vores 180 års historie om kærlighed. Kærlighed har altid drevet os til at gå den ekstra mil for at give den ægte varme, der får kunderne til at føle sig elskede og til gengæld forelske sig i vores mærker.

Ved denne særlige lejlighed vil jeg gerne dedikere denne bog fyldt med vores kærlighedshistorie til dig. Jeg vil også benytte lejligheden til at takke alle vores kunder, kolleger og forretningspartnere for jeres støtte og for at have spillet en vigtig rolle i vores væksthistorie.


John B. Watson

Vores redaktører gennemgår, hvad du har indsendt, og afgør, om artiklen skal revideres.

John B. Watson, fuldt ud John Broadus Watson, (født 9. januar 1878, Travelers Rest, nær Greenville, South Carolina, USA - død 25. september 1958, New York, New York), amerikansk psykolog, der kodificerede og offentliggjorde adfærdsmæssig adfærd, en tilgang til psykologi, der efter hans opfattelse var begrænset til den objektive, eksperimentelle undersøgelse af forholdet mellem miljøhændelser og menneskelig adfærd. Watsonian behaviourisme blev den dominerende psykologi i USA i løbet af 1920'erne og 30'erne.

Hvordan var John B. Watsons barndom?

John B. Watson voksede op i en fattig landbrugsfamilie. Hans far drak kraftigt, var udsat for vold og var ofte fraværende, og han forlod endelig familien, da John var 13 år gammel. For egen regning var John et uregerligt barn og en fattig studerende.

Hvor blev John B. Watson uddannet?

Som lille barn blev John B. Watson uddannet i et etværelses skolehus og på et beskedent privat akademi i Travelers Rest, South Carolina. Han kom ind på Furman University i Greenville, South Carolina, da han var 16 år og modtog en kandidatgrad i 1899. Han fik en ph.d. i psykologi ved University of Chicago i 1903.

Hvad skrev John B. Watson?

John B. Watson skrev blandt andre værker, Adfærd: En introduktion til sammenlignende psykologi (1914) Psykologi fra en behaviorists standpunkt (1919), betragtet som den endelige erklæring om hans psykologi Behaviorisme (1925), en bog for den almindelige læser og Psykologisk pleje af spædbørn og børn (1928).

Hvorfor er John B. Watson berømt?

John B. Watson er berømt for at have grundlagt klassisk behaviourisme, en tilgang til psykologi, der behandlede adfærd (både dyr og mennesker) som en organisms betingede reaktion på miljøstimuli og indre biologiske processer, og som afviste som uvidenskabelige alle formodede psykologiske fænomener, der var ikke objektivt målelig eller observerbar.

Watson modtog en ph.d. i psykologi fra University of Chicago (1903), hvor han derefter underviste. In 1908 he became professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University and immediately established a laboratory for research in comparative, or animal, psychology. He articulated his first statements on behaviourist psychology in the epoch-making article “Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It” (1913), claiming that psychology is the science of human behaviour, which, like animal behaviour, should be studied under exacting laboratory conditions.

His first major work, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, was published in 1914. In it he argued forcefully for the use of animal subjects in psychological study and described instinct as a series of reflexes activated by heredity. He also promoted conditioned responses as the ideal experimental tool. In 1918 Watson ventured into the relatively unexplored field of infant study. In one of his classic experiments—and one of the most controversial in the history of psychology—he conditioned fear of white rats and other furry objects in “Little Albert,” an orphaned 11-month-old boy.

The definitive statement of Watson’s position appears in another major work, Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist (1919), in which he sought to extend the principles and methods of comparative psychology to the study of human beings and staunchly advocated the use of conditioning in research. His association with academic psychology ended abruptly. In 1920, in the wake of sensational publicity surrounding his divorce from his first wife, Watson resigned from Johns Hopkins. He entered the advertising business in 1921.

Watson’s book Behaviorisme (1925), for the general reader, is credited with interesting many in entering professional psychology. Following Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928) and his revision (1930) of Behaviorisme, Watson devoted himself exclusively to business until his retirement in 1946.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty, Editor.


Historie

The Vegan Society was founded in November 1944 and we’ve made tremendous progress since.

Early vegans

The Vegan Society may have been established 75 years ago but veganism has been around much longer. Evidence of people choosing to avoid animal products can be traced back over 2,000 years. As early as 500 BCE, Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras promoted benevolence among all species and followed what could be described as a vegetarian diet. Around the same time, Siddhārtha Gautama (better known as the Buddha) was discussing vegetarian diets with his followers.

Fast forward to 1806 CE and the earliest concepts of veganism are just starting to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.

The first modern-day vegans

In November 1944, Donald Watson (right and below) called a meeting with five other non-dairy vegetarians, including Elsie Shrigley, to discuss non-dairy vegetarian diets and lifestyles. Though many held similar views at the time, these six pioneers were the first to actively found a new movement - despite opposition. The group felt a new word was required to describe them something more concise than ‘non-dairy vegetarians’. Rejected words included ‘dairyban’, ‘vitan’, and ‘benevore’. They settled on ‘vegan’, a word that Donald Watson later described as containing the first three and last two letters of ‘vegetarian’. In the words of Donald Watson, it marked “the beginning and end of vegetarian”. The word vegan was coined by Donald Watson from a suggestion by early members Mr George A. Henderson and his wife Fay K. Henderson that the society should be called Allvega and the magazine Allvegan.

Although the vegan diet was defined early on it was as late as 1949 before Leslie J Cross pointed out that the society lacked a definition of veganism and he suggested “[t]he principle of the emancipation of animals from exploitation by man”. This is later clarified as “to seek an end to the use of animals by man for food, commodities, work, hunting, vivisection, and by all other uses involving exploitation of animal life by man”.

The society was first registered as a charity in August 1964 but its assets were later transferred to a new charity when it also became limited company in December 1979. The definition of veganism and the charitable objects of the society were amended and refined over the years. By winter 1988 this definition was in use - although the phrasing has changed slightly over the years - and remains so today:

[…] a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practicable—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.

Delving into Vegan Society archives

Our researcher-in-residence, Dr Sam Calvert, has been hard at work delving into our archives at Vegan Society HQ, discovering how The Vegan Society began and how we have grown over the decades. Her findings are published as a pdf entitled Ripened by Human Determination: Seventy Years of The Vegan Society. It is available to download here.

A transcript of an interview with Donald Watson from 2002 is available here and his 2005 obituary, from the archives, can be found here.

The story continues

The Vegan Society continues to hold true to the vision of our founding members as we work towards a world in which humans do not exploit other animals. We’re as determined as ever to promote vegan lifestyles for the benefit of animals, people and the environment.


Thomas Watson at the Beach

It’s summertime. We are at the beach, and we have great companions along. We have some Puritan authors. Dr. Sinclair Ferguson recently introduced us to the wonderful box set of ten volumes containing fifteen classic works by the Puritans. So in the month of June, we will be selecting books from this box set and taking them to the beach with us. Dr. Ferguson writes that this little library “will no doubt be treasured for the quality of its production. Its ten volumes are built to last, but it will be even more highly prized for the wonderful selection of Puritan literature it contains.”

First, let’s think a little bit about these Puritans. They have a bad reputation for being sour and dour. Dr. Ferguson says, “The volumes in this little library tell a different story. It is one of a people committed to the knowledge, worship, and service of God, living under his loving care as their heavenly Father, according to his word, experiencing forgiveness and new life in Christ, and conscious of the communion and power of the Holy Spirit.” That is certainly true of the first Puritan we want to talk about, Thomas Watson.

We have visited with Watson before in Five Minutes in Church History. We’ve talked about his body of divinity and his book on repentance. He was an alum of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He was a pastor in London. During his time as a pastor, he was arrested and jailed for two years for Nonconformity. Then in 1662, he was one of a few thousand who were kicked out of their pulpits as part of the Great Ejection. These were Puritans all. They were forced out of their pulpits of Anglican churches because of Queen Elizabeth’s Act of Uniformity. After Watson was ejected, he still managed to find churches and pulpits where he could preach. In fact, for a few years he pastored alongside Stephen Charnock, the author of The Existence and Attributes of God and a fellow Emmanuel College alum.

In this box set, Watson’s work is titled All Things for Good. The original title was A Divine Cordial, or, the Transcendent Privilege of Those That Love God and Are Sovereignly Called. A cordial is a comforting or pleasant tasting medicine. And so this is a devotional book of comfort. This new title comes from Romans 8:28: “We know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose.” This book is one long meditation and application of Romans 8:28.

Watson begins with those first two words: “We know.” He goes on to say that this is a “certain privilege,” this thing that we are to know. Then he divides his book into three parts. The first is “All things work together for good.” The second part is “To them that love God,” and it deals with loving God. The final part deals with the final clause of this verse: “To them who are called according to his purpose.” This concerns the doctrine of unconditional election.

There is much to talk about concerning Watson and All Things for Good. We will pick up again next time. For now, that’s Thomas Watson, our first Puritan at the beach.


Location and Facilities

Pasatiempo Golf Club is located in Santa Cruz, California, and many of its holes offer spectacular views of nearby Monterey Bay.

Pasatiempo is a convenient drive from four local airports (Monterey, San Francisco, Oakland and San Jose). We are less than an hour’s drive from Pebble Beach and Spyglass Hill golf courses, making this region the perfect destination to access Golf Digest’s top 3 courses you can play in California.

Pasatiempo’s outstanding facilities include a fully stocked Golf shop, driving range, chipping green, putting green, the MacKenzie Bar & Grill and the famous Hollins House Restaurant/Special event venue. Pasatiempo is the perfect place for golf outings, daily bar & grill service, corporate meetings, banquets, weddings, and fine dining.

- Alan Shipnuck, Senior Writer, Sports Illustrated (May 25, 2011)


1870s

A.S. Watson sets up scholarship to support local medical school. Dr Sun Yat–sen, the renowned politician and revolutionist in China, is also one of the beneficiaries under the scholarship scheme

The Hong Kong Dispensary begins trading under the name A.S. Watson & Company.

A.S. Watson expands overseas to the Philippines and China establishes a pharmacy and a soft drink factory (1884) in Manila.

A.S. Watson becomes the 15th company registered on the Hong Kong Company Registry.

A.S. Watson operates 35 stores and produces about 300 dispensary, toiletry and perfumery lines.

There is a deadly plague in Hong Kong in 1890s-1920s, costing over 10,000 lives and hygiene of drinking water becomes a major health concern. Many people become ill due to the unclean water.
Watsons Water is established to provide safe and reliable distilled water in Hong Kong.


High Speed Rail Summit: "Faster and Further: a shared vision for High Speed Rail"

Nicola Sturgeon was born in Irvine in 1970 and educated at Greenwood Academy. She studied law at the University of Glasgow, where she graduated with LLB (Hons) and Diploma in Legal Practice.

Before entering the Scottish Parliament she worked as a solicitor in the Drumchapel Law and Money Advice Centre in Glasgow.

She was elected MSP for Glasgow in 1999, and is now MSP for Govan. Before being appointed Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing after the May 2007 election she had been Shadow Minister for Education, Health & Community Care and Justice. In September 2012, still as DFM, she was appointed Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities with responsibility for government strategy and the constitution.

Keith Brown MSP

Minister for Transport and Veterans, Scottish Government

Keith Brown served with the Royal Marines before pursuing a career in local government administration, where he was also an active trade union representative with UNISON. He is a graduate of Dundee University and studied at the University of Prince Edward Island.

He has been a Member of the Scottish Parliament since 2007 and is currently the constituency MSP for Clackmannanshire and Dunblane. Before his election he served for 11 years as a councillor in Clackmannanshire, and held the post of Council Leader from 1999 to 2003.

He became Minister for Skills and Lifelong Learning in February 2009 and has since held a number of ministerial roles before becoming Minister for Transport and Veterans in September 2012.

He was appointed Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities in November 2014 and appointed Cabinet Secretary for the Economy, Jobs and Fair Work in May 2016.

Originally from Edinburgh, Keith now lives in Dollar with his three children.

/>@KeithBrownSNP />@ScotGov

Norman Baker MP

Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport, UK Government (video address)

Norman Baker MP has been Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport since May 2010 and is the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Lewes, East Sussex.

Born in Aberdeen in 1957, Norman moved to Hornchurch, Essex, in 1968. He was educated at the Royal Liberty School, Gidea Park, before taking a degree in German at Royal Holloway College, University of London.

Prior to entering the House of Commons in 1997, he had a variety of jobs including periods as a Regional Executive Director for Our Price Records, a teacher of English as a second language and clerk at Hornsey Railway Station.

He was elected to his local councils &ndash Lewes District and Beddingham Parish &ndash in 1987, and two years later was elected to East Sussex County Council. In 1991 he became Lewes District Council&rsquos first ever Liberal Democrat leader.

Norman held a number of portfolios in the Liberal Democrat Shadow Cabinet, including Shadow Minister for the Cabinet Office, Shadow Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Shadow Secretary of State for Transport.

As an MP, Norman made his reputation for uncovering scandal and as a dedicated and effective campaigner for the environment and animal rights.

Norman has a passion for music collecting records, occasionally singing in a 60&primes rock band, and hosting a Sunday morning radio show at his local radio station. He is married to Liz and has three daughters.

Ansvar

  • Rail (including commercial, operational performance and Community Rail)
  • Buses &ndash including concessionary fares
  • Taxis
  • Light rail and trams
  • Smart ticketing (including rail fares and ticketing)
  • Traffic management
  • Regional and Local transport (including local roads, maintenance, Major Projects, winter resilience)
  • Natural environment &ndash including biofuels
  • Sustainable travel &ndash including walking and cycling
  • Accessibility and equalities
  • Alternatives to travel
  • SMEs and growth

Professor Roderick A Smith

Research Professor of Railway Engineering, Imperial College London

Professor Roderick A Smith, now Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Transport, has had an academic career at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Sheffield and Imperial College. He has been Head of the Departments of Mechanical Engineering at both Sheffield and Imperial College London, and a Fellow of Queens&rsquo College Cambridge and St John&rsquos College Oxford. He holds visiting Chairs in several countries.

He has published widely in areas of fatigue and structural integrity, and has lectured in many countries. Latterly his work has centred round railways: he has held two Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chairs in advanced railway engineering at Sheffield and Imperial. He is widely called upon as an expert witness, both in the UK and abroad: most recently he acted as an advisor to a major Government inquiry on metro failures in Singapore. He has played a leading technical role in the inquiry following the Hillsborough football stadium disaster, and led a specialist group investigating the effect of volcanic ash on jet engines in 2011. He is frequently quoted in the press and has made many radio and television appearances. He is immediate Past President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was recently awarded the Degree of Doctor of Science honoris causa by the University of Lincoln.

He has made many visits to Japan, is married to a Japanese wife and initiated the gift of a &ldquobullet&rdquo train to the National Railway Museum. He has served as a Trustee of the Science Museum for two four year terms. He is a keen mountaineer and member of the Alpine Club.

Jim Steer

Director, Greengauge21 and Steer Davies Gleave

Jim Steer is the founder of Steer Davies Gleave, transport consultants, where he is a Board Director.

He established Greengauge 21 in 2006 to foster debate on a high speed rail network for Britain. Greengauge 21 has an on-going programme of research funded by a Public Interest Group.

He was seconded to the Strategic Rail Authority from 2002-5, heading strategy and planning.

He is Vice President of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, and a columnist for the Transport Times, and was a member of HS2 Ltd&rsquos Strategic Challenge Panel.

Dr Pete Waterman OBE

Supporter of High Speed Rail

Dr PETE WATERMAN OBE, DL is the most successful British producer-songwriter in pop history, an author, DJ, Pop Idol judge and television presenter and a lifelong entrepreneur. Perhaps best known as one-third of the phenomenally successful Stock Aitken Waterman team and for his world-famous PWL label and production company, Pete has sold in excess of 500 million records around the world over five decades, launching artists such as Kylie Minogue, John Travolta, Rick Astley and Steps. Amongst countless international industry awards, in 1990 Pete was recognised as the Music Industry&rsquos Man of the Year.

Beyond music, Pete has a lifelong love for the railways. Since buying the first national rail franchise in 1993, Pete has continued to contribute massively to the preservation and development of this historic and essential industry. In 1997, he established London & North Western Railway, a state-of-the-art independent railway maintenance company. In 2005 he sold LNWR to Arriva (now DB Schenker), allowing him to focus on Britain&rsquos largest railway heritage business, London & North Western Railway Heritage Company, an independent facility in Crewe for the repair and maintenance of diesel locomotives which employs 50 people.

Pete is also the proud owner of significant commercial and historic locomotives (at one time including the legendary &lsquoFlying Scotsman&rsquo) and rolling stock, the largest O-gauge model railway in Europe and Just Like The Real Thing, his own model train company, and recently led the successful campaign for the National Skills Academy for Railway Engineering. Not bad for a lad who started his railway career as a fireman!

Pete is a director and currently chairs the board of Cadogan Entertainment Investments Ltd, the landlords of County Hall, Britain&rsquos second biggest building and a key London tourist attraction. After receiving honorary degrees from Coventry University in 2001 and the University of Liverpool in 2004, Pete was awarded the OBE for his services to music in the Queen&rsquos New Year&rsquos Honours List in 2005, and Deputy Lieutenant of Cheshire in 2010.

Councillor Alistair Watson

Council Business Manager, Glasgow City Council

Alistair Watson entered local government in 1995 after an active period with the trade union ASLEF. He is 58 years of age and resides in Cardonald in Glasgow, broadly representing the area in which he grew up.

Alistair's aim is to achieve change on behalf of the community, particularly from a transport perspective as this is the brief which interests him most.

Since becoming a councillor Alistair has held the following positions at various times:-

&bull Vice-convener, Roads and Transportation Committee
&bull Convener, Land and Environmental Services Department
&bull Chair, Road Safety Committee
&bull Chair, West of Scotland Road Safety Forum
&bull Chair, Strathclyde Passenger Transport
&bull Chair, Strathclyde Partnership for Transport
&bull Chair, Regeneration and the Economy Committee
&bull Chair, Intelligent Transport Systems Political Grouping
&bull From 27 June 2013, Executive Member for Sustainability and Transport
&bull Current Business Manager of the Council
GlasgowCC

Andrew Boagey

Business Director for Northern Europe, Systra

Andrew is Systra&rsquos Business Director for Northern Europe and leads Systra&rsquos participation as project delivery partner for London&rsquos Crossrail.

Andrew also led Systra&rsquos involvement in Britain&rsquos first high speed line, HS1 and is now advising HS2 - the promoters of the UK&rsquos next high-speed rail line from London to Birmingham - on the railway&rsquos design parameters.

Colin Stewart

Global Rail Business Leader, Arup

Colin is a Director of Arup, where he is jointly responsible for the Partnership&rsquos international design operation for transport projects.

Colin was the Technical Director and Deputy Project Director for the design and project management of the UK&rsquos first high speed line, the £6bn HS1 (the Channel Tunnel Rail Link), before moving on to the Board of Control which oversaw the successful delivery of the project to time and budget.

He is currently Project Director for the route options study being carried out by Arup for HS2 Ltd., to identify a new high speed line from London to the West Midlands and also the proposed Y-route to the North-East.

He leads Arup&rsquos Global Rail Business, which has a turnover of approximately £180m, and incorporates rail projects from light rail to high speed in countries across the world, including Europe, East Asia, America and Australia.

Arup High Speed Rail projects include High Speed 1 and High Speed 2 in UK, California High Speed Rail, Texas High Speed Rail, Express Rail Link (China to Hong Kong), Portugal HSL, High Speed Line Holland and Beijing South High Speed Rail Station.

Colin has played key roles in the delivery of major infrastructure projects and has first hand experience of private finance projects through his roles as project manager, designer and technical advisor to financial institutions and strategic advisor for the implementation of private finance initiatives.

Councillor Paul Watson

Chair, Association of North East Councils

Councillor Paul Watson was elected as Chair of the Association of North East Councils in October 2009.

The Association of North East Councils brings together the 12 local authorities in the North East of England on a cross Party basis. Working together they are a strong voice for the local government sector and seek to influence national policy decisions on key issues for the North East, including transport, the economy, resources, culture, health and the environment.

Cllr Watson is also Leader of Sunderland City Council (since May 2008), after previously serving as Deputy Leader since May 2006. Prior to that, he was Portfolio Holder for Regeneration and Community Cohesion.

Born in Sunderland, he served an apprenticeship at Sunderland Shipbuilders where he worked until 1981. He has been a self-employed businessman ever since. Cllr Watson has an Honours Degree in Law awarded by Teesside University in 1998.

The Leader of the Council, as Leader of the controlling majority political group, Chairs the Cabinet and acts as the Council&rsquos lead political spokesman.

He is also Chair of the Port of Sunderland, one of the leading North Sea ports.

Cllr Watson represents the City Council at national and sub-national levels on a number of key organisations. As well as being Chair of the Association of North East Councils he is Executive Member of the Local Government Association Chair of the Sunderland Economic Leadership Board Chair of the Tyne and Wear Development Company and is a member of the European Union&rsquos Committee of the Regions. He also sits on the board of the Sunderland Football Club foundation.

Rupert Walker

Head of HSR Development, Network Rail

Stephen Clark

Rail Programme Director, Transport for Greater Manchester

Stephen has been the Rail Programme Director at Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) since 2010 &ndash a role created to build a stronger focus around rail in the region. He has played a leading role in developing evidence and stakeholder support for rail investment in the north of England, such as that included in DfT&rsquos recently published plans for the period to 2019.

In 2011 the ten Greater Manchester districts formed the country&rsquos first Combined Authority (GMCA). In this context Stephen has led Greater Manchester&rsquos work, with partners across the North, to develop a proposition for Westminster government to devolve decision-making in rail franchising.

Stephen joined TfGM after a stint at Manchester City Council where he combined the roles of Head of Transport Policy for the city and Deputy Clerk to GM Integrated Transport Authority.

In 2008 Stephen moved to Greater Manchester from the Department for Transport where he had been Head of Rail Strategy. His time at DfT included negotiating the relocation of railway carriage sidings to make way for the Olympic site and Orbit sculpture. Prior to DfT he had been Director of Planning at the Strategic Rail Authority &ndash where he published the first Route Utilisation Strategies. Before that time Stephen had a railway industry career including roles in British Rail, Network South East, Thameslink, OPRAF and Railtrack. These roles included making case for the Leeds station re-development in 2002, procuring first generation franchises in 1997, developing Thameslink services to Brighton in 1995, and advising on British Rail on forecasting for European freight and InterCity sandwiches! He has a PhD in geological sciences, and is a member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology&rsquos Transport Policy Panel.

David Hodges

Public Affairs Manager, London Chamber of Commerce and Industry

David's policy brief at the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry focuses on 'London's Infrastructure', with a particular focus on major transport projects. David has spoken at a number of events on the vital importance of projects like High Speed 2 to the economy on behalf of the business community.

Previously David has worked in the House of Commons, and in political consultancy advising a number of international businesses across the technology, manufacturing, energy and skills sectors. Prior to entering politics, David studied History and Politics at the University of Leicester before completing a Masters at Brunel University.

Julian Daley

Network Development Officer, Merseytravel Lead Officer for the West Coast Rail 250 campaign


Se videoen: Alistair Watson, Senior Investment Manager, Aberdeen Standard Investments (Januar 2022).