Internet

En introduktion til fremtiden

Internettet er et verdensomspændende elektronisk netværk, der giver adgang til millioner af informationsressourcer, som ikke alle er gratis. Det har revolutioneret computer- og kommunikationsverdenen som intet før. Telegraph, telefon, radio og computer havde sat scenen for denne hidtil usete integration af muligheder. Internettet er på én gang en verdensomspændende udsendelseskapacitet, en mekanisme til informationsformidling og et medium for samarbejde og interaktion mellem enkeltpersoner og deres computere uden hensyn til geografisk placering.

Åbningen af ​​Internettet for offentlighedens adgang er den vigtigste videnskabelige og sociale udvikling i 1990'erne. Mange andre vidunderlige præstationer ville ikke have været mulige uden offentlig adgang til dette tidligere begrænsede kolde krigs militær-industrielle komplekse kommunikationsværktøj. Internets betydning er, at:

  • Det eliminerer næsten i overført betydning tid og rum ved selv at skabe det, der kaldes "Cyberspace", hvor tekst og billeder (stadig og i bevægelse) får deres eget liv. Særlige typer websteder eller steder på World Wide Web (www) giver besøgende mulighed for at komme ind i et cyberspace -rum eller et virtuelt rum ved hjælp af en valgt digital repræsentant eller "avatar" til at interagere med andre besøgende i realtid.
  • Det giver alle mulighed for selvudgivelse og giver enkeltpersoner en global stemme.
  • Det giver alle på kloden en global markedsplads for kommercielle virksomheder.
  • Det leverer viden og uddannelse til de fjerneste steder på - eller fra - jorden og er verdens største bibliotek.
  • Det begynder at erstatte fjernsynet med længe lovet interaktivt tv.
  • Det gør det muligt for "vidensarbejdere" at forfølge lønsom beskæftigelse hjemmefra eller næsten hvor som helst. Dette eneste aspekt vil i sidste ende have stor indflydelse på Amerikas byer. Mange videnarbejdere er ikke længere knyttet til job, der kan pendles, i byer, og har nu valg af livskvalitet. De er nu i stand til at forlade byen og forstaden til sådanne ønskelige hjemlige steder som små byer eller landdistrikter og stadig udføre deres givne opgaver.
  • Hvad det er og gør

    Internettet, eller simpelthen nettet, er det offentligt tilgængelige verdensomspændende system af sammenkoblede computernetværk, der udveksler og passerer information, der udsendes til det offentlige område med næsten let hastighed. Overførte data bevæger sig rundt om kloden og ud i det ydre rum på få sekunder ved at bruge dem 1"Pakkeskift" og en standard måde at udføre dataoverførsel mellem computere kaldet "Internet Protocol" (IP).

    Internettet består af millioner af mindre kommercielle, akademiske, indenlandske og offentlige netværk. Det bærer sådanne oplysninger og tjenester som elektronisk post, online chat, tale, sammenkoblede websider og andre dokumenter fra www. Den første softwareapplikation, der blev oprettet til Internettet, var et elektronisk postprogram.

    En grundlæggende historie på Internettet - dine skattekroner på arbejde

    Historien om Internettet begyndte i 1969 med implementering af ARPANET af akademiske forskere under sponsorering af det amerikanske forsvarsministerium, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

    Nogle tidlige undersøgelser, der bidrog til ARPANET, omfattede arbejde med decentrale netværk, køteori og pakkeskift. ARPANET selv interagerede imidlertid ikke let med andre computernetværk, der ikke delte sin egen native -protokol. Dette problem inspirerede til yderligere forskning i retning af udvikling af en protokol, der kunne "lagvis" over mange forskellige typer netværk.

    Den 1. januar 1983 blev ARPANETs netværksprotokol ændret fra NCP til 2TCP/IP, der markerer begyndelsen på Internettet, som det kendes i dag.

    Et andet vigtigt skridt i Internets udvikling var National Science Foundation's (NSF) konstruktion af et universitetsnetværk, NSFNet, i 1986. Vigtige forskellige netværk, der med succes er blevet indkvarteret på Internettet, omfatter 3Usenet og 4Bitnet.Internettet

    Det kollektive netværk fik et offentligt ansigt i 1990'erne. I august 1991 offentliggjorde Tim Berners-Lee sit nye World Wide Web (www) -projekt to år efter, at han var begyndt at oprette 5HTML, 6HTTP, og de første par websider på 7CERN i Schweiz. Et par akademiske og statslige institutioner bidrog med sider, men offentligheden kunne ikke se dem endnu. I 1993 blev Mosaic -webbrowseren version 1.0 frigivet, og i slutningen af ​​1994 var der en stigende offentlig interesse for det tidligere akademiske/tekniske internet.

    I 1996 var ordet "Internet" almindeligt i det offentlige ordforråd, men få af offentligheden uden for videnskabelige kredse forstod endnu Internettet ud over www.

    Mosaic -webbrowseren var den første 8www -applikationssoftware. Mosaic 1.0 havde original support til at få adgang til dokumenter og data ved hjælp af www, gopher, 9Anonym FTP og NNTP (Usenet News) og 10 Telnet -protokoller var inkluderet.

    Der eksisterede støtte til Archie, Finger, Whois og Veronica etc. via gateways. Disse sjove navne, nogle taget fra tegneseriefigurer, refererer alle til unikke softwareværktøjer kaldet kommunikationsværktøjer. De blev udviklet til Internettet før www.

    I mellemtiden, i løbet af 1990'erne, kunne Internettet med succes rumme størstedelen af ​​tidligere eksisterende computernetværk (selvom sådanne netværk som 11FidoNet er forblevet adskilt).

    Denne vækst tilskrives ofte manglen på central administration, som muliggør organisk vækst af netværket, såvel som internetprotokollernes ikke-ejendomsretlige karakter. Dette tilskynder leverandørens interoperabilitet og forhindrer en virksomhed i at udøve for meget kontrol over netværket.

    Portaler og søgemaskiner

    Med titusinder af computere, der allerede er tilsluttet, og som giver adgang til milliarder af websider, er portaler og søgemaskiner det normale startsted for websurfere. En portal er en gateway til en indre helligdom i cyberspace. America On Line (AOL) er et godt eksempel.

    Søgemaskiner bruger specialiseret software, der indekserer store dele af internettet. Brugere af søgemaskiner indtaster et søgeord og modtager en liste over angiveligt relevante links til websider. Resultaterne er normalt (1) forud for sponsorerede websteder og (2) overvældende i mængde. En vellykket søgning starter med et tankevækkende spørgsmål.

    Selvom Internettet er det nyeste medie til informationsstrømme, er det det hurtigste nye medium nogensinde og bliver informationsmediet for førstevalg for sine brugere.

    Internetadgang og "World Wide Wait"

    Adgang til Internettet kræver en elektronisk enhed kaldet et modem. Udtrykket er et akronym for Modulate-Demodulate, hvilket er hvad et modem gør. Modemet er telefonforbindelsen mellem computeren og Internettet. Tidlige modemer var langsomme og kun til tekst.

    Introduktionen af ​​www inkluderede grafik, så det virkede meget langsommere - popularisering af sætningen World Wide Wait. Modemets rødder ligger i det tidlige telegrafsystem skabt af Samuel F.B. Morse og Western Union -virksomheden. Moderne digitale modemer har overvundet hastighedsbegrænsningerne for de tidlige modeller og tillader musik, video og realtidsstemme at overføre 50 til 100 gange hurtigere. Denne hurtigere modemteknologi kaldes bredbånd, men den er stadig baseret på gammel Morse -telegrafteknologi.

    Voiceover IP (VOIP)

    En af de nyeste applikationer, der anvender Internettet, er Voiceover Internet Protocol (VOIP). VOIP giver folk mulighed for at tale med hinanden via deres computertilslutning, som en almindelig telefon.

    VOIP er for dem med hurtige internetforbindelser, der omgår Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) og det traditionelle telefonnetværk, så de kan tale med alle på planeten, der er forbundet på samme måde gratis, og så længe de ønsker at holde forbindelsen åben .

    Nye kommercielle internettjenester tilbyder gebyrbaseret VOIP til hjemmebrugere, der udnytter hurtig internetadgang via bredbånd. Hjemmesinternetadgang er traditionelt via POTS, for langsom til VOIP. Virksomheder, offentlige og skole internetforbindelser er normalt meget hurtigere og kan rumme mange samtidige brugere, der anvender en specialiseret netværkscomputer (en IP/PBX Internet Protocol Private Branch eXchange), til at dirigere stemmetrafik over deres internetforbindelse og helt omgå POTS. Et eksempel på dette er hostet IP PBX.

    Fremtiden er Internet2

    Til sidst gør bredbånd forældet, fremtidens internet med høj kapacitet eksisterer allerede. Internet2 var i gang, før Internettet blev åbnet for offentligheden. Internet2-netværket forbinder amerikanske forskningsuniversiteter og det militærindustrielle kompleks med hastigheder 50-100 gange hurtigere end det ældre offentlige netværk.

    Internet2 fungerer med 100 millioner bits pr. Sekund (mbps), der kan understøtte avancerede applikationer som telemedicin og streaming af HDTV-kvalitet. Internet2 er et non-profit konsortium, der ledes af mere end 180 amerikanske universiteter og indgår partnerskab med mere end 60 førende virksomheder.


    1: Skift af pakker - En pakke er et stykke af en besked, der sendes over et pakkeskiftende netværk. Internettet er sådan et netværk. En af nøglefunktionerne i en pakke er, at den indeholder destinationsadressen ud over de data, der overføres. I Internet Protocol (IP) netværk kaldes pakker ofte datagrammer.
    2: TCP/IP - Transmissionskontrolprotokol/internetprotokol
    3: Usenet - Et sæt af titusinder af "nyhedsgrupper", (diskussionsfora) distribueret via Internettet. Nyhedsgrupper har beskrivende navne, f.eks. sci.astro.amateur, og er arrangeret i hierarkier eller klassifikationer. Langsomt erstattet af web-baserede fora (Search Yahoo Groups).
    4: Bitnet - Et Wide Area Network, der forbinder universitets computercentre over hele verden til at overføre e -mail mellem og blandt forskere, nu integreret i Internettet.
    5: HTML - Hypertext Markup Language: et sæt koder, kaldet "tags", indsat i et tekstdokument for at definere skrifttyper, tabeller, billeder, links til andre sider og andre sidelayoutdetaljer for dokumenter beregnet til www -publikation.
    6: HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol: en standardmetode til offentliggørelse af oplysninger som hypertekst i HTML -format, der danner en destinationswebadresse.
    7: CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research (Schweiz), verdens største partikelfysikcenter. Fysikere undersøger, hvad stof er lavet af, og hvilke kræfter holder det sammen.
    8:World Wide Web (www) - www er en del af Internettet, hvor information og billeder præsenteres grafisk. Det mest populære segment på Internettet.
    9: Anonym FTP - File Transfer Protocol: en standard måde at overføre filer fra en computer til en anden.
    10: Telnet - Et vigtigt værktøj, der i vid udstrækning bruges til at overføre filer mellem netværkscomputere.
    11: FidoNet - Består af cirka 10.000 systemer verden over, som omfatter et netværk, der udveksler mail og filer via modemer. FidoNet er gratis at deltage i og kræver gratis software, der kan downloades. Dette netværk drives og vedligeholdes af hobbyfolk, der aktivt deltager i drift og vedligeholdelse.


    Hvordan internettet blev opfundet

    I kongeriget apps og enhjørninger er Rossotti en sjældenhed. Denne ølhave i hjertet af Silicon Valley har stået på samme sted siden 1852. Det er ikke forstyrrende, det skalerer ikke. Men i mere end 150 år har det gjort en ting og gjort det godt: det har givet californierne et godt sted at blive fulde.

    I løbet af sin lange eksistens har Rossottis været en grænsesalon, et guldrush -spillehul og et Hells Angels -hangout. I disse dage kaldes det Alpine Inn Beer Garden, og klientellet forbliver lige så broget som nogensinde. På terrassen ude bag er der cyklister i spandex og cyklister i læder. Der er en vildhåret mand, der måske er en professor eller en galning eller en administrerende direktør, der kladrer ind i en notesbog. På parkeringspladsen er en Harley, en Maserati og en hest.

    Det ser ikke ud til at være et sandsynligt sted for en større innovation. Men for 40 år siden i august oprettede et lille team af forskere en computerterminal ved et af dets picnicborde og udførte et ekstraordinært eksperiment. Over plastik kopper øl beviste de, at en mærkelig idé kaldet internettet kunne fungere.

    Internettet er så stort og formløst, at det er svært at forestille sig, at det bliver opfundet. Det er let at forestille sig Thomas Edison opfinde lyspæren, fordi en pære er let at visualisere. Du kan holde den i din hånd og undersøge den fra alle vinkler.

    Internettet er det modsatte. Det er overalt, men vi ser det kun i glimt. Internettet er som det hellige spøgelse: det gør sig bekendt for os ved at tage pixel på vores skærme i besiddelse for at manifestere websteder og apps og e -mail, men dets essens er altid andre steder.

    Denne funktion på internettet får det til at virke ekstremt komplekst. Noget så allestedsnærværende, men alligevel usynligt, må helt sikkert kræve dyb teknisk raffinement for at forstå. Men det gør den ikke. Internettet er grundlæggende enkelt. Og den enkelhed er nøglen til dens succes.

    De mennesker, der opfandt internettet, kom fra hele verden. De arbejdede på så forskellige steder som det franske regering-sponsorerede computernetværk Cyclades, Englands National Physical Laboratory, University of Hawaii og Xerox. Men moderskibet var den amerikanske forsvarsdepartements overdådigt finansierede forskningsarm, Advanced Research Projects Agency (Arpa) - som senere skiftede navn til Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) og dens mange entreprenører. Uden Arpa ville internettet ikke eksistere.

    Et gammelt billede af Rossottis, et af internettets fødesteder. Foto: Hilsen af ​​Alpine Inn Beer Garden, tidligere Rossotti 's

    Som et militært foretagende havde Arpa en specifikt militær motivation for at oprette internettet: det tilbød en måde at bringe computing til frontlinjen. I 1969 havde Arpa opbygget et computernetværk kaldet Arpanet, som forbandt mainframes på universiteter, offentlige instanser og forsvarskontraktører rundt om i landet. Arpanet voksede hurtigt og omfattede næsten 60 noder i midten af ​​1970'erne.

    Men Arpanet havde et problem: det var ikke mobil. Computerne på Arpanet var gigantiske efter nutidens standarder, og de kommunikerede over faste links. Det kan virke for forskere, der kunne sidde på en terminal i Cambridge eller Menlo Park - men det gjorde lidt for soldater indsat dybt i fjendens territorium. For at Arpanet kunne være nyttig for kræfter i feltet, skulle det være tilgængeligt overalt i verden.

    Forestil dig en jeep i Zaïres jungler, eller en B-52 miles over Nordvietnam. Forestil dig dem derefter som noder i et trådløst netværk, der er knyttet til et andet netværk af kraftfulde computere, der er tusinder af miles væk. Dette er drømmen om et netværket militær, der bruger computerkraft til at besejre Sovjetunionen og dets allierede. Dette er drømmen, der producerede internettet.

    At gøre denne drøm til virkelighed krævede at gøre to ting. Den første var at bygge et trådløst netværk, der kunne videresende pakker med data blandt de vidt spredte tandhjul i den amerikanske militærmaskine via radio eller satellit. Den anden var at forbinde disse trådløse netværk med det kablede netværk af Arpanet, så mainframes på flere millioner dollars kunne betjene soldater i kamp. "Internetarbejde," kaldte forskerne det.

    Internetarbejde er det problem, internettet blev opfundet for at løse. Det bød på enorme udfordringer. At få computere til at tale med hinanden - netværk - havde været svært nok. Men at få netværk til at tale med hinanden - internetarbejde - udgjorde et helt nyt sæt vanskeligheder, fordi netværkene talte fremmede og uforenelige dialekter. At forsøge at flytte data fra den ene til den anden var som at skrive et brev på mandarin til en, der kun kender ungarsk og håber på at blive forstået. Det virkede ikke.

    Som svar udviklede internetarkitekterne en slags digitalt esperanto: et fælles sprog, der gjorde det muligt for data at rejse på tværs af ethvert netværk. I 1974 offentliggjorde to Arpa -forskere ved navn Robert Kahn og Vint Cerf en tidlig plan. På baggrund af samtaler, der finder sted i hele det internationale netværkssamfund, skitserede de et design til "en simpel, men meget fleksibel protokol": et universelt regelsæt for, hvordan computere skal kommunikere.

    Disse regler måtte finde en meget delikat balance. På den ene side skulle de være strenge nok til at sikre pålidelig overførsel af data. På den anden side skulle de være løst nok til at rumme alle de forskellige måder, data kan overføres på.

    Vinton Cerf, til venstre, og Robert Kahn, der udarbejdede den første internetprotokol. Foto: Louie Psihoyos/Corbis

    "Det skulle være fremtidssikret," fortæller Cerf til mig. Du kunne ikke skrive protokollen et tidspunkt, for den ville snart blive forældet. Militæret ville blive ved med at innovere. De ville blive ved med at opbygge nye netværk og nye teknologier. Protokollen skulle holde trit: den skulle fungere på tværs af "et vilkårligt stort antal adskilte og potentielt ikke-interoperable pakkeskiftede netværk", siger Cerf-herunder dem, der endnu ikke var opfundet. Denne funktion ville gøre systemet ikke kun fremtidssikkert, men potentielt uendeligt. Hvis reglerne var robuste nok, kunne "netværksensemblet" vokse på ubestemt tid og assimilere alle digitale former i sit spredte flertrådede net.

    Til sidst blev disse regler internettets lingua franca. Men først skulle de implementeres og finjusteres og testes - igen og igen og igen. Der var intet uundgåeligt ved, at internettet blev bygget. Det virkede som en latterlig idé for mange, selv blandt dem, der byggede det. Omfanget, ambitionen - internettet var en skyskraber, og ingen havde nogensinde set noget mere end et par historier høje. Selv med en ildslange af kolde krigs militære kontanter bag sig lignede internettet et langskud.

    Så, i sommeren 1976, begyndte det at fungere.

    Hvis du havde gået ind i Rossottis ølhave den 27. august 1976, ville du have set følgende: syv mænd og en kvinde ved et bord, svævende rundt om en computerterminal, kvinden der skrev. Et par kabler løb fra terminalen til parkeringspladsen og forsvandt ind i en stor grå varevogn.

    Inde i varevognen var der maskiner, der forvandlede ordene, der blev skrevet på terminalen, til pakker med data. En antenne på varevognens tag overførte derefter disse pakker som radiosignaler. Disse signaler strålede gennem luften til en repeater på en nærliggende bjergtop, hvor de blev forstærket og genudsendt. Med dette ekstra løft kunne de nå helt til Menlo Park, hvor en antenne ved en kontorbygning modtog dem.

    Det var her, den virkelige magi begyndte. Inde i kontorbygningen passerede de indgående pakker problemfrit fra et netværk til et andet: fra pakkeradionetværket til Arpanet. For at gøre dette spring, skulle pakkerne gennemgå en subtil metamorfose. De var nødt til at ændre deres form uden at ændre deres indhold. Tænk på vand: det kan være damp, væske eller is, men dets kemiske sammensætning forbliver den samme. Denne mirakuløse fleksibilitet er et træk ved det naturlige univers - hvilket er heldigt, for livet afhænger af det.

    En plakette ved Rossottis minde om eksperimentet i august 1976. Foto: Hilsen af ​​Alpine Inn Beer Garden, tidligere Rossotti 's

    Fleksibiliteten, som internettet afhænger af, måtte derimod konstrueres. Og den dag i august gjorde det det muligt for pakker, der kun havde eksisteret som radiosignaler i et trådløst netværk, at blive elektriske signaler i Arpanets kabelforbundne netværk. Bemærkelsesværdigt bevarede denne transformation dataene perfekt. Pakkerne forblev helt intakte.

    Så intakt faktisk, at de kunne rejse yderligere 3.000 miles til en computer i Boston og blive samlet igen i nøjagtig den samme besked, der blev skrevet i terminalen hos Rossotti. Den nye protokol, der blev tilberedt af Kahn og Cerf, drev denne internetwork -odyssé. To netværk var blevet til et. Internettet fungerede.

    "Der var ikke balloner eller lignende," fortæller Don Nielson. Nu i 80'erne ledede Nielson eksperimentet hos Rossotti på vegne af Stanford Research Institute (SRI), en større Arpa -entreprenør. Han er høj og blød og er ubarmhjertigt beskeden, sjældent har nogen haft en bedre undskyldning for at prale og mindre lyst til at forkæle det. Vi sidder i stuen i hans Palo Alto -hjem, fire miles fra Google, ni fra Facebook, og på intet tidspunkt tager han endda delvist æren for at skabe den teknologi, der gjorde disse ekstravagant rentable virksomheder mulige.

    Internettet var en gruppeindsats, insisterer Nielson. SRI var kun en af ​​mange organisationer, der arbejdede med det. Måske var det derfor, at de ikke følte sig trygge ved at poppe flasker champagne hos Rossotti - ved at kræve for meget ære for et hold, ville det have krænket samarbejdsånden i det internationale netværkssamfund. Eller måske havde de bare ikke tid. Dave Retz, en af ​​forskerne på Rossottis, siger, at de var for bekymrede for at få eksperimentet til at fungere - og da det gjorde det, for bekymret for hvad der så skulle ske. Der var altid mere at udrette: Så snart de havde sat to netværk sammen, begyndte de at arbejde på tre - hvilket de opnåede lidt over et år senere, i november 1977.

    Over tid faldt mindet om Rossottis tilbage. Nielson selv havde glemt det, indtil en reporter mindede ham 20 år senere. "Jeg sad på mit kontor en dag," husker han, da telefonen ringede. Journalisten i den anden ende havde hørt om eksperimentet hos Rossotti og ville vide, hvad det havde at gøre med internettets fødsel. I 1996 havde amerikanerne cybersex i AOL chatrooms og byggede frygtelige beslaglæggelsesfremkaldende hjemmesider på GeoCities. Internettet var vokset ud af dets militære rødder og gået mainstream, og folk blev nysgerrige efter dets oprindelse. Så Nielson gravede et par gamle rapporter ud af sine filer og begyndte at reflektere over, hvordan internettet begyndte. "Denne ting viser sig at være en stor ting," husker han, at han tænkte.

    Det, der gjorde internettet til en stor ting, er den funktion, Nielsons team demonstrerede den sommerdag hos Rossotti: dens fleksibilitet. For fyrre år siden teleporterede internettet tusindvis af ord fra Bay Area til Boston over kanaler lige så forskellige som radiobølger og kobber telefonlinjer. I dag bygger den langt større afstande over et endnu større udvalg af medier. Det overfører data mellem milliarder af enheder og formidler vores tweets og Tinder swipes på tværs af flere netværk i millisekunder.

    Alpine Inn Beer Garden i dag - stadig et sted, hvor menneskemængder i Silicon Valley samles. Foto: Hilsen af ​​Alpine Inn Beer Garden, tidligere Rossotti 's

    Dette er ikke kun en teknisk bedrift - det er en designbeslutning. Det vigtigste at forstå om internettets oprindelse, siger Nielson, er, at det kom ud af militæret. Selvom Arpa havde bred bredde, måtte den stadig vælge sine projekter med henblik på at udvikle teknologier, der en dag kunne være nyttige til at vinde krige. De ingeniører, der byggede internettet, forstod det og tilpassede det i overensstemmelse hermed.

    Derfor designede de internettet til at køre overalt: fordi det amerikanske militær er overalt. Det har næsten 800 baser i mere end 70 lande rundt om i verden. Det har hundredvis af skibe, tusinder af krigsfly og titusinder af pansrede køretøjer. Grunden til at internettet kan fungere på tværs af enhver enhed, netværk og medium - grunden til at en smartphone i Sao Paulo kan streame en sang fra en server i Singapore - er fordi den skulle være lige så allestedsnærværende som det amerikanske sikkerhedsapparat, der finansierede konstruktionen.


    Måde 1: Få adgang til dine routerindstillinger på computeren

    Nogle WiFi -routere har mulighed for at oprette system- og trafiklogfiler for de tilsluttede enheder når som helst. Så dette kan være en nyttig ressource for nogen at spionere gennem WiFi -router.

    Trin til, hvordan du tjekker WiFi -routerhistorik på computeren

    Trin 1: Start med, du skal finde ud af din IP -adresse. For at åbne et kommandovindue skal du holde Windows tast, og tryk på R samtidig på dit tastatur.

    Trin 2: Type cmd i boksen, og tryk på Okay.

    Trin 3: Derefter åbner det et nyt vindue, skriv ipconfig/alle og tryk på Gå ind nøgle til at udføre kommandoen.

    Trin 4: Rul ned, og du finder din IP -adresse under linjen Standard gateway. Det vil være i formatet 願.000.0.0 '.

    Trin 5: Kopier værdien af ​​din IP -adresse til en browser.

    Trin 6: Du bliver bedt om at logge ind med din WiFi router -konto. Hvis du ikke husker kontonavnet og adgangskoden, skal du gå til din routerfremstillingswebsted og bede om hjælp eller tjekke emballagen og instruktionsbogen til din router.

    Trin 7: Når du har logget ind på dit WiFi -router -websted, kan du klikke på Udgående logbord for at se aktiviteten af ​​de enheder, der forbinder til routeren.

    Som du kan se, får du en grundlæggende liste over navne, kilder, IP -adresser og MAC -adresser ved at kontrollere routerhistorik. Men det viser måske ikke dig specifikke webadresser, som nogen besøgte på et bestemt websted. Hvis du vil have mere information, skal du gå til vores næste løsning.


    Evolutionen af ​​kommunikationssystemer

    1.4 Internettet og TCP/IP -historikken

    Meget af den tilgængelige internethistoriske litteratur tyder på, at Internettet begyndte med nogle militære computere i Pentagon i et netværk kaldet Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (eller Arpanet) i 1969. En teori er, at netværket var designet til at overleve et atomangreb. Dette projekt førte til udviklingen af ​​internetprotokollerne engang i løbet af 1970'erne.

    I virkeligheden antyder Bob Taylor, Pentagon -embedsmanden med ansvar for Arpanet, at formålet ikke var militært, men videnskabeligt. Ifølge Taylor var der ingen overvejelser om at overleve et atomangreb. Faktisk har Larry Roberts, der blev ansat til at bygge Arpanet, udtalt, at Arpanet ikke engang var beregnet til at være en kommunikationsinfrastruktur.

    Arpanet blev opfundet for at gøre det muligt for forskningsinstitutioner at bruge processorkraften på andre institutioners computere, når de havde store beregninger til at gøre det, der krævede mere strøm, eller når andre agenturers computere var bedre egnet til en given opgave.

    Det mest bemærkelsesværdige bidrag fra Arpanet-projektet var at udvikle pakkeskiftende kommunikationsteknikker. I 1965, før Arpanet opstod, udviklede en britisk ingeniør ved navn Donald Davies begrebet pakkeskift, et middel til at diskrete meddelelser kan rejse fra punkt til punkt på tværs af et netværk. Der var samtidigt arbejde i hele USA om teknologier, der kunne betragtes som pakkeskift, men det var Davies 'hjernebarn, der først drev Arpanet.

    Arpanet gjorde derfor nogle væsentlige opdagelser, der skulle resultere i oprettelsen af ​​det første internet. Disse omfatter elektronisk post, implementering af datapakker, og udvikling af Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

    TCP/IP, kommunikationsprotokollen, der blev brugt som grundlag for Internettet, blev udviklet i 1970'erne i Californien af ​​Vinton Cerf, Bob Kahn, Bob Braden, Jon Postel og andre medlemmer af Networking Group under ledelse af Steve Crocker. TCP/IP blev udviklet til at forbedre tidligere kommunikation mellem computere i Arpanet.

    I 1972 blev Arpanet demonstreret på den internationale computerkommunikationskonference i Washington, DC. Efterfølgende blev der oprettet en international netværksgruppe under ledelse af Vinton Cerf.

    Selvom det ikke er klart, hvem der først brugte ordet Internet, udtrykket, der faktisk refereres til internetarbejde snarere end nogen henvisning til IP. I 1975 blev de første prototype -protokoller testet, og i 1978 blev TCP/IPv4 frigivet. TCP/IP blev officielt tilføjet til Arpanet i 1983.


    En kort historie om Internettet & Relaterede netværk

    I 1973 iværksatte US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) et forskningsprogram for at undersøge teknikker og teknologier til sammenkobling af pakkenetværk af forskellig art. Målet var at udvikle kommunikationsprotokoller, som ville give computere i netværk mulighed for at kommunikere gennemsigtigt på tværs af flere sammenkædede pakkenetværk. Dette blev kaldt Internetting -projektet, og systemet med netværk, der opstod fra forskningen, blev kendt som “Internet. ” Systemet med protokoller, der blev udviklet i løbet af denne forskningsindsats, blev kendt som TCP/IP Protocol Suite , efter at de to indledende protokoller blev udviklet: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) og Internet Protocol (IP).

    I 1986 igangsatte U.S.National Science Foundation (NSF) udviklingen af ​​NSFNET, som i dag leverer en stor rygradskommunikationstjeneste til Internettet. Med sine 45 megabit pr. Sekund faciliteter transporterer NSFNET i størrelsesordenen 12 milliarder pakker om måneden mellem de netværk, den forbinder. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) og det amerikanske energiministerium bidrog med yderligere rygradfaciliteter i form af henholdsvis NSINET og ESNET. I Europa giver store internationale rygrader som NORDUNET og andre forbindelse til over hundrede tusinde computere på et stort antal netværk. Kommercielle netværksudbydere i USA og Europa begynder at tilbyde internet -rygrad og adgangsstøtte på et konkurrencedygtigt grundlag til alle interesserede parter.

    “Regional ” support til Internettet leveres af forskellige konsortiumnetværk, og “local ” support ydes gennem hver af forsknings- og uddannelsesinstitutionerne. Inden for USA er meget af denne støtte kommet fra føderale og statslige regeringer, men industrien har ydet et betydeligt bidrag. I Europa og andre steder opstår der støtte fra kooperative internationale bestræbelser og gennem nationale forskningsorganisationer. I løbet af dets udvikling, især efter 1989, begyndte internetsystemet at integrere understøttelse af andre protokolsuiter i dets grundlæggende netværksstruktur. Den nuværende vægt i systemet er på multiprotokol -samarbejde, og især med integrationen af ​​Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) -protokollerne i arkitekturen.

    Både public domain og kommercielle implementeringer af de cirka 100 protokoller i TCP/IP -protokolsuite blev tilgængelige i 1980 ’s. I begyndelsen af ​​1990'erne blev OSI -protokolimplementeringer også tilgængelige, og ved udgangen af ​​1991 er internettet vokset til at omfatte omkring 5.000 netværk i over tre dusin lande, der betjener over 700.000 værtscomputere, der bruges af over 4.000.000 mennesker.

    En stor støtte til internetsamfundet er kommet fra den amerikanske føderale regering, da Internettet oprindeligt var en del af et føderalt finansieret forskningsprogram og efterfølgende er blevet en stor del af den amerikanske forskningsinfrastruktur. I slutningen af ​​1980'erne voksede befolkningen af ​​internetbrugere og netværkskomponenter imidlertid internationalt og begyndte at omfatte kommercielle faciliteter. Størstedelen af ​​systemet består i dag af private netværksfaciliteter i uddannelses- og forskningsinstitutioner, virksomheder og i offentlige organisationer over hele kloden.

    The Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Networks (CCIRN), which was organized by the U.S. Federal Networking Council (FNC) and the European Reseaux Associees pour la Recherche Europeenne (RARE), plays an important role in the coordination of plans for government- sponsored research networking. CCIRN efforts have been a stimulus for the support of international cooperation in the Internet environment.
    Internet Technical Evolution

    Over its fifteen year history, the Internet has functioned as a collaboration among cooperating parties. Certain key functions have been critical for its operation, not the least of which is the specification of the protocols by which the components of the system operate. These were originally developed in the DARPA research program mentioned above, but in the last five or six years, this work has been undertaken on a wider basis with support from Government agencies in many countries, industry and the academic community. The Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created in 1983 to guide the evolution of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite and to provide research advice to the Internet community.

    During the course of its existence, the IAB has reorganized several times. It now has two primary components: the Internet Engineering Task Force and the Internet Research Task Force. The former has primary responsibility for further evolution of the TCP/IP protocol suite, its standardization with the concurrence of the IAB, and the integration of other protocols into Internet operation (e.g. the Open Systems Interconnection protocols). The Internet Research Task Force continues to organize and explore advanced concepts in networking under the guidance of the Internet Activities Board and with support from various government agencies.

    A secretariat has been created to manage the day-to-day function of the Internet Activities Board and Internet Engineering Task Force. IETF meets three times a year in plenary and its approximately 50 working groups convene at intermediate times by electronic mail, teleconferencing and at face-to-face meetings. The IAB meets quarterly face-to-face or by videoconference and at intervening times by telephone, electronic mail and computer-mediated conferences.

    Two other functions are critical to IAB operation: publication of documents describing the Internet and the assignment and recording of various identifiers needed for protocol operation. Throughout the development of the Internet, its protocols and other aspects of its operation have been documented first in a series of documents called Internet Experiment Notes and, later, in a series of documents called Requests for Comment (RFCs). The latter were used initially to document the protocols of the first packet switching network developed by DARPA, the ARPANET, beginning in 1969, and have become the principal archive of information about the Internet. At present, the publication function is provided by an RFC editor.

    The recording of identifiers is provided by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) who has delegated one part of this responsibility to an Internet Registry which acts as a central repository for Internet information and which provides central allocation of network and autonomous system identifiers, in some cases to subsidiary registries located in various countries. The Internet Registry (IR) also provides central maintenance of the Domain Name System (DNS) root database which points to subsidiary distributed DNS servers replicated throughout the Internet. The DNS distributed database is used, inter alia, to associate host and network names with their Internet addresses and is critical to the operation of the higher level TCP/IP protocols including electronic mail.

    There are a number of Network Information Centers (NICs) located throughout the Internet to serve its users with documentation, guidance, advice and assistance. As the Internet continues to grow internationally, the need for high quality NIC functions increases. Although the initial community of users of the Internet were drawn from the ranks of computer science and engineering, its users now comprise a wide range of disciplines in the sciences, arts, letters, business, military and government administration.
    Related Networks

    In 1980-81, two other networking projects, BITNET and CSNET, were initiated. BITNET adopted the IBM RSCS protocol suite and featured direct leased line connections between participating sites. Most of the original BITNET connections linked IBM mainframes in university data centers. This rapidly changed as protocol implementations became available for other machines. From the beginning, BITNET has been multi-disciplinary in nature with users in all academic areas. It has also provided a number of unique services to its users (e.g., LISTSERV). Today, BITNET and its parallel networks in other parts of the world (e.g., EARN in Europe) have several thousand participating sites. In recent years, BITNET has established a backbone which uses the TCP/IP protocols with RSCS-based applications running above TCP.

    CSNET was initially funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to provide networking for university, industry and government computer science research groups. CSNET used the Phonenet MMDF protocol for telephone-based electronic mail relaying and, in addition, pioneered the first use of TCP/IP over X.25 using commercial public data networks. The CSNET name server provided an early example of a white pages directory service and this software is still in use at numerous sites. At its peak, CSNET had approximately 200 participating sites and international connections to approximately fifteen countries.

    In 1987, BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN). In the Fall of 1991, CSNET service was discontinued having fulfilled its important early role in the provision of academic networking service. A key feature of CREN is that its operational costs are fully met through dues paid by its member organizations.


    Brief Timeline Of The Internet

    Although we think of the Internet as a new entity, its origins date back over 40 years. Here’s a brief timeline highlighting important dates in Internet history.

    When we talk about the Internet, we talk about the World Wide Web from the past four or five years. But, its history goes back a lot further all the way back to the 1950s and 60s.

    “Where was I,” you ask, “while all this was happening?” Well, it’s quite simple really: the Space Program. America was so fascinated with sending men into outer space, hundreds of miles away, it never saw what was being invented to bring everyone closer together — eventually.

    So, just in case you missed the development of the Internet, here is a brief timeline highlighting some of the major occurrences over the past 49 years that have shaped the Internet of today. For more extensive info, you’ll find links to other timelines at the bottom of this page.


    Internet history

    I completely understand wanting to be able to find your Internet history in a quick and convenient way. You have come to the right place I would be more than happy to assist you!

    Currently in order to view the history of Internet searches, it would need to be from the device itself. I do apologize for any inconvenience, however currently Smart Limits and your online bill do not show a list of sites which have been visited.

    Depending on the type of device you are using, and the browser, finding the Internet searches may be different. For example, in order to view history in Google Chrome from a desktop, you would first click options (3 horizontal bar in top right) then go to History to view your recently visited sites.

    Please also keep in mind history can be deleted for a specific amount of time. In Chrome, you can delete history for past hour, day, weeks, or longer. There are also other ways of masking sites visited, such as by using Incognito Mode.

    I hope this information helps. Please let me know if you have any other questions. I would be more than happy to answer them for you. Have a fantastic rest of your day.

    Austin, AT&T Community Specialist

    Still need help? Ask a question! Vores 1.4 million members typically respond within 1 hour.


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    The Internet Hall of Fame's Living History Timeline explores the history of the Internet and highlights the inductees who have pioneered Internet technology, contributed to ongoing development and innovation and helped expand the Internet's reach across the globe.

    USSR Launches Sputnik

    USSR launches Sputnik into space and, with it, global communications.

    Bell Labs Invents Modem

    Bell Labs researchers invent the modem (modulator - demodulator), which converts digital signals to electrical (analog) signals and back, enabling communication between computers.

    Bell Labs Dataphone/Modem Image

    U.S. Government Creates ARPA

    The United States government creates the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in response to Sputnik launch.

    Joint Chiefs of Staff Image

    Leonard Kleinrock Pioneers Packet-Switching

    Leonard Kleinrock pioneers the packet-switching concept in his Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) doctoral thesis about queueing theory: Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.

    J.C.R. Licklider Conceives Intergalactic Network

    J.C.R. Licklider writes memos about his Intergalactic Network concept of networked computers and becomes the first head of the computer research program at ARPA.

    ASCII Is Developed

    The first universal standard for computers, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange) is developed by a joint industry-government committee. ASCII permits machines from different manufacturers to exchange data.

    Paul Baran, Donald Davies Develop Message Blocks/Packet-switching

    The Rand Corporation's Paul Baran develops message blocks in the U.S., while Donald Watts Davies, at the National Physical Laboratory in Britain, simultaneously creates a similar technology called packet-switching. The technology revolutionizes data communications.

    ARPA Sponsors Networking Study

    ARPA sponsors study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers."

    Lawrence Roberts & Thomas Marill Create First Wide-area Network

    Lawrence Roberts (MIT) and Thomas Marill get an ARPA contract to create the first wide-area network (WAN) connection via long distant dial-up between a TX-2 computer in Massachusetts and a Q-32 computer in California. The system confirms that packet switching offers the most promising model for communication between computers.

    ARPAnet Project Initiated

    Directing ARPA’s computer research program, Robert Taylor initiates the ARPAnet project, the foundation for today’s Internet.

    Charles Herzfeld Approves Funds for Computer Networking Experiment

    As ARPA director, Charles Herzfeld approves funding to develop a networking experiment that would tie together multiple universities funded by the agency. The result would be the ARPAnet, the first packet network and a predecessor to today’s Internet.

    Lawrence Roberts Leads Networking Experiment

    Building on the 1965 “Cooperative Network of Time-sharing Computers” study, MIT’s Lawrence Roberts comes to ARPA to conduct the networking experiment and develop the first ARPAnet plan ("Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers").

    ARPAnet Design Begins

    Lawrence Roberts leads ARPAnet design discussions and publishes first ARPAnet design paper: "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication." Wesley Clark suggests the network is managed by interconnected ‘Interface Message Processors’ in front of the major computers. Called IMPs, they evolve into today’s routers.

    Donald Davies Publishes First Packet-switching Paper

    Donald Watts Davies of the National Physical Laboratory in England publishes his paper on “packet-switching,” the term he coins.

    National Physical Lab Image

    Danny Cohen Develops First Real-time Visual Flight Simulator

    Danny Cohen develops the first real-time visual flight simulator on a general purpose computer and the first real-time radar simulator. His flight simulator work leads to the development of the Cohen-Sutherland computer graphics line clipping algorithms, created with Ivan Sutherland.

    Engelbart Makes His Mother of All Demos Presentation

    Engelbart makes his "Mother of All Demos" presentation where he introduces hypertexting and collaborative computing for the first time.

    Bolt Beranek and Newman Wins IMP Development Contract

    Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) is awarded the ARPA contract to build the Interface Message Processors.

    Kennedy Congratulates BBN On ARPA Contract

    US Senator Edward Kennedy sends BBN a congratulatory telegram on winning the ARPA contract to build the "Interfaith" Message Processors.

    UCLA Develops ARPAnet Host Level Protocols

    Steve Crocker heads UCLA Network Working Group under Professor Leonard Kleinrock to develop host level protocols for ARPAnet communication in preparation for becoming the first node. The group, which includes Vint Cerf and Jon Postel, lays the foundation for protocols of the modern Internet.

    ARPAnet’s Structural Proposal Written

    Dr. Howard Frank co-writes the proposal that wins the contract to design the network structure for the ARPAnet.

    IMP Network Links First Four Nodes

    The physical Interface Message Processor (IMP) network is constructed, linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah.

    UCLA Team Sends First Data Packets

    The first data packets are sent between networked computers on October 29th by Charley Kline at UCLA, under supervision of Professor Leonard Kleinrock. The first attempt resulted in the system crashing as the letter G of “Login” was entered. The second attempt was successful.

    Key Internet Protocols Implemented

    Dr. David Clark implements Internet protocols for the Multics systems, the Xerox PARC ALTO and the IBM PC.

    Peter Kirstein Starts European ARPAnet

    Professor Peter Kirstein of University College London starts the first European ARPAnet node with transatlantic IP connectivity.

    IMP Network Grows

    Fifteen nodes (23 hosts) comprise the IMP network.

    Ray Tomlinson Invents Email

    Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents the email program to send messages across a distributed network. The "@" sign is chosen from the punctuation keys on Tomlinson's Model 33 Teletype to separate local from global emails, making " [email protected] " the email standard.

    Robert Kahn Demonstrates ARPAnet to Public

    Robert Kahn demonstrates the ARPAnet to the public for the first time by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, and in doing so, imparts the importance of packet-switching technology.

    Jon Postel Helps Create First Internet Address Registry

    While at the Information Science Institute, Jon Postel helps create the first Internet address registry, which later becomes Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). This administers IP addresses and other critical Internet functions.

    Louis Pouzin Leads CYCLADES Development

    Louis Pouzin leads the French effort to build CYCLADES, France’s version of the ARPAnet.

    Ethernet Invented at Xerox Parc

    Faced with the "good fortune to be the first person in the world to be given the problem of connecting a roomful of computers," Bob Metcalfe co-invented the Ethernet at Xerox Parc.

    TCP/IP Protocol Development Begins

    Development begins on what will eventually be called TCP/IP protocol by a group headed by Vint Cerf (Stanford) and Robert Kahn (DARPA). The new protocol will allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other.

    How a Packet Travels Through the TCP/IP Stack

    Danny Cohen Pioneers Network Voice Protocol

    Danny Cohen was the first to implement “packet video” and “packet voice” (Network Voice Protocol) when he adapted the visual flight simulator to run over the ARPANET in 1973. It was the first application of packet switching to real-time applications. See Danny's presentation here.

    University College of London Establishes First International ARPAnet Link

    The first international connection to the ARPAnet is made by University College of London (England) via NORSAR (Norway).

    Elizabeth Feinler Begins Leading NIC

    Elizabeth “Jake” Feinler begins to help lead SRI International’s Network Information Center (NIC), where her group eventually develops the first Internet “yellow-” and “white-page” servers, the first query-based network host name and address (WHOIS) server, and the Host Naming Registry for the Internet. As a part of this effort she and her group develop the top-level domain naming schemes of .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .org, and .net.

    Vint Cerf, Robert Kahn Coin 'Internet'

    Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection" which specifies in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program (TCP) and coins the term “Internet” for the first time.

    Bolt Beranek and Newman Founds Telenet

    Lawrence Roberts helps Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) found Telenet, the first public packet data service, a commercial version of ARPAnet.

    Lawrence Landweber Creates Computer Science Network

    Lawrence Landweber creates CSNET (Computer Science Network), a network for all US university and industrial computer research groups. By 1984, over 180 university, industrial, and government computer science departments are participating in CSNET.

    Mike Jensen Begins Pioneering Early Networks in Developing Countries

    Mike Jensen begins building some of the earliest networks to connect the nonprofit sector, playing a key role in establishing network connectivity for developing countries.

    Jaap Akkerhuis Helps Connect the Netherlands and Europe

    Jaap Akkerhuis becomes instrumental in the development of the Internet in the Netherlands and Europe, and plays a key role as a global connector in the technical community.

    Perlman Develops Key Routing Protocols

    Radia Perlman designs IS-S (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) protocol for routing IP, which continues to flourish today, and the Spanning Tree algorithm, which allows the Ethernet to handle large clouds of data.

    Douglas Van Houweling Oversees NSFnet

    Dr. Van Houweling helps oversee the operation and management of NSFnet, the foundation on which the global Internet is built.

    CSNet Developed

    Professor David Farber helps conceive and organize the National Science Foundation’s Computer Science Network (CSNet), which is instrumental in helping to spread global awareness of networking technology.

    IAB Established

    As a DARPA manager, Dr. Barry Leiner helps establish the Internet Activities Board (later the Internet Architecture Board), which leads the effort to set early Internet technical standards.

    Lawrence Landweber Forges First U.S.- Europe Network Gateways

    Lawrence Landweber establishes the first network gateways between the U.S. and European countries. He also establishes the “Landweber Conferences,” which are instrumental in showing scientists from around the world how to implement national academic and research networks in their countries.

    International Internet Connectivity Map

    Jean Armour Polly Initiates Public Internet Access

    Jean Armour Polly begins offering computer access to the public at the Liverpool Public Library, in Liverpool, New York, becoming one of the first public libraries to do so.

    Ira Fuchs Helps Create BITNET

    Ira Fuchs co-founds BITNET, a precursor to the Internet that offers many of the Internet’s core services years before the Internet’s commercialization.

    BITNET connections in 1985

    Visual Simulator Runs Over ARPAnet

    Danny Cohen adapts the visual simulator to run over the ARPAnet, the first application of packet- switching networks to real-time applications. See demonstration here.

    First Public WAN Initiated

    Teus Hagen initiates the European Unix Network (EUnet) as the EUUG dial-up service, which becomes the first public wide area network in Europe, serving four initial “backbones.”

    Kilnam Chon Connects Asia to Internet

    Kilnam Chon develops the first Internet connection in Asia, called SDN, and his pioneering work inspires others to promote the Internet’s regional growth.

    ARPAnet Transitions to TCP/IP

    The ARPAnet changes its core networking protocols from Network Control Programs to the more flexible and powerful TCP/IP protocol suite, marking the start of the modern Internet.

    Paul Mockapetris Invents Domain Name System

    Paul Mockapetris expands the Internet beyond its academic origins by inventing the Domain Name System (DNS). John Klensin helps facilitate early procedural and definitional work for DNS administration and top-level domain definitions.

    Yvonne Marie Andrés Creates Global Schoolnet

    In 1984, Yvonne Marie Andrés creates the nonprofit Global SchoolNet, an international organization that facilitates collaborative educational projects.

    CERN and TCP/IP

    Ben Segal convinces CERN that TCP/IP is the key to making the Internet functional.

    Japan’s UNIX Network Developed

    Dr. Jun Murai, known as the ‘father of the Internet in Japan,’ develops the Japanese University UNIX Network (JUNET), the first inter-university network in that nation.

    First Email in Germany

    The first email arrives in Germany from the U.S. on August 3, 1984. "Willkommen CSNET," it says. Werner Zorn plays a critical role in this event and establishing the German Internet.

    First U.S. Research & Education Network Developed

    Dr. Stephen Wolff leads the development of NSFNET, the first U.S. open computer network supporting research and higher education.

    Dan Lynch Founds INTEROP

    INTEROP, founded by Dan Lynch, plays a key role in demonstrating the commercial viability of the Internet's design, and trains thousands on the design, implementation, and operation of Internet-enabled equipment.

    Craig Partridge Develops Modern Email Routing System

    Craig Partridge designs how email is routed using domain names.

    IETF Holds First Meeting

    In January 1986, in San Diego, California, 21 people attend a historic meeting now known as IETF 1. It's the first meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force, an open, global community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers who help guide Internet architecture and standards.

    Michael Stanton Helps Bring Internet to Brazil

    Michael Stanton ignites a national conversation in Brazil about the need for Internet access, prompting the government’s initiation in 1989 of the country’s first National Research Network or RNP (now the National Education and Research Network).

    National Research Network / RNP Logo

    Elise Gerich Helps Deploy NSFNET T-1 Backbone

    Elise Gerich plays a key role in leading the team that created the NSFNET T-1 backbone, which at the time was the Internet’s principal backbone.

    Douglas Comer Writes Landmark TCP/IP Book

    Douglas Comer writes Internetworking with TCP/IP, the first series of textbooks explaining the Internet’s underlying design.

    Internetworking with TCP/IP

    The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Internet is Published

    Responding to a lack knowledge in the academic community about Internet use, Ed Krol writes The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Internet, published in 1987 as one of the earliest non-technical Internet guides. It was later adopted as the Internet Engineering Task Force’s RFC-1118.

    Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet

    Internet Arrives in Chile

    Florencio Utreras leads the connection of Chile to the BITNET network.

    Srinivasan Ramani Plays Role in India's ERNET

    Srinivasan Ramani plays a key role in India’s Education and Research Network (ERNET) and leads the effort to set up ERNET’s international gateway, starting with a link to Amsterdam.

    Southern Africa Gets Connected

    While serving as executive director at SANGONeT, an Internet service provider and training institution for civil society, labour and community organizations, Esterhuysen, with many others, helps establish email and Internet connectivity in Southern Africa.

    Nancy Hafkin Helps Develop ICT In Africa

    Nancy Hafkin helps facilitate the ECA’s African Information Society Initiative, which establishes the first email connectivity in more than 10 African countries.

    Suguru Yamaguchi founds the WIDE

    Suguru Yamaguchi helps found the WIDE (Widely Integrated Distributed Environment) Project, which establishes the first Japanese Internet backbone.

    Tracy LaQuey Parker Pens Early Bestseller about the Internet

    Tracy LaQuey Parker writes one of the earliest, best-selling books about the Internet: The User's Directory of Computer Networks , which becomes a historic record of the NSFNET.

    First Internet Exchange Point Established

    Dr. Glenn Ricart sets up the first Internet Exchange point, connecting the original federal TCP/IP networks and first U.S. commercial and non-commercial Internet networks.

    Thailand Gets Own Internet Domain

    Dr. Kanchana Kanchanasut led Thailand’s effort to secure a domain by re gistering the .TH country-code top-level domain.

    Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) Created

    Francois Flückiger convenes the founding meeting that leads to the creation of Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE), the nonprofit organization that conducts technical coordination of the European Internet infrastructure.

    Five of the RIPE pioneers at the 20th anniversary celebrations in May. From left to right: François Fluckiger, Daniel Karrenberg, Enzo Valente, Olivier Martin and Rob Blokzijl.

    Daniel Karrenberg Helps Build First Pan-European ISP

    Daniel Karrenberg helps build EUnet, the first pan-European Internet Service Provider. By 1989, Karrenberg helps found Reseaux IP Europeens (RIPE), the key collaborative forum for Internet coordination in Europe. He also leads the formation of the world’s first Regional Internet Registry, the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC).

    Van Jacobson Solves Internet Congestion

    Van Jacobson develops algorithms for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that help solve the problem of congestion and are still used in over 90% of Internet hosts today.

    Tadao Takahashi Lays Brazilian Internet Foundation

    Tadao Takahashi starts one of the earliest academic networks in Brazil and becomes a driving force in the effort to build a backbone that would become the foundation of the Brazilian Internet.

    Rede Nacional de Ensino e Pesquisa (RNP)

    Alan Emtage Begins Development of First Internet Search Engine

    Alan Emtage conceives of and begins developing the world’s first Internet search engine, called Archie, pioneering many techniques used by search engines today.

    Global Internet Development Grows

    Dr. Stephen Goldstein plays a key role in evaluating and funding development of Internet initiatives around the world, helping connect about 25 countries to the NSFNET.

    Geoff Huston Helps Deploy Australian Internet

    Geoff Huston leads the effort to bring the Internet from the academic and research sector to the Australian public. Through his work with Australian communications service provider, Telstra, he helps facilitate the large-scale deployment of the Internet across Australia and as a transit service provider in the Asia Pacific region.

    Tim Berners-Lee Creates WWW

    At CERN, the European Physical Laboratory, Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau is a key proponent of the project, and helps Berners-Lee author a proposal for funding. Later, Cailliau develops, along with Nicola Pellow, the first web browser for the Mac OS operating system.

    Brewster Kahle Invents First Internet Publishing System

    Brewster Kahle invents the Internet’s first publishing system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server) and founds WAIS, Inc. A precursor to today’s search engines, WAIS is one of the first programs to index large amounts of data and make it searchable across large networks.

    Association for Progressive Communications Founded

    Karen Banks, co-founds APC, an international network and non-profit dedicated to creating and sustaining a free and open Internet that serves the needs of the global civil society.

    Stephen Kent Pioneers Internet Security Systems

    Dr. Stephen Kent pioneers secure communications over open networks.

    Latin America Internet Development Begins

    Ida Holz helps lead a group of computing pioneers whose efforts resulted in the development of the first Latin American networks.

    Sri Lankan Academic Internet Established

    Gihan Dias helps set up and run the academic Internet in Sri Lanka - The Lanka Education And Research Network ( LEARN).

    Electronic Frontier Foundation Founded

    John Perry Barlow co-founds the Electronic Frontier Foundation to provide legal aid to defend individuals and new technologies from “misdirected legal threats” related to technology.

    Linus Torvalds Creates Linux

    Linus Torvalds creates Linux and becomes a leading supporter of Open Source software.

    Toru Takahashi Promotes Internet In Japan

    Toru Takahashi helps bring the Internet to Japan and promotes it throughout Asia in the 1990s. He is key to the early commercial development of the Internet in the region.

    Jose Soriano Helps Bring Internet to Peru

    Jose Soriano founds the Red Cientifica Peruana (RCP), a non-profit organization established to develop the Internet in Peru.

    Dai Davies Joins Protocol Battle

    Dai Davies helps introduce Internet technology into the pan-European backbone EuropaNet, which would eventually be dominated by TCP/IP.

    Netherlands Internet Development Begins

    Kees Neggers leads the effort to create the first European Internet Provider (IP) backbone.

    Phil Zimmermann Creates PGP Email Encryption

    Philip Zimmermann creates Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), an email encryption software package that's published for free. Originally designed as a human rights tool, PGP becomes one of the most widely used email encryption softwares in the world.

    Al Gore Creates Bill to Fund "Information Superhighway"

    Al Gore creates the High-performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991 (the Gore Bill), which allocates $600 million for high performance computing and helps create the National Research and Educational Network. The Gore Bill also creates the National Information Infrastructure, known as the Information Superhighway.

    Electronic Directions Magaizine Cover Image

    World Wide Web Opens to Public

    The World Wide Web is made available to the public for the first time on the Internet.

    Ermanno Pietrosemoli Spurs Global Internet Education

    Ermanno Pietrosemoli begins leading technical education of the Internet in dozens of countries in South America and Africa.

    Internetworking Introduced to Japan

    Dr. Haruhisa Ishida introduces UNIX computing and the concept of internetworking to Japan.

    George Sadowsky Helps Create Global Internet Training Team

    George Sadowsky helps create the team that would train over 1,500 instructors from over 100 nations on Internet technologies, operation, management and governance. This initiative was crucial to the Internet’s global expansion.

    Vint Cerf, Robert Kahn Found Internet Society

    Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn found the Internet Society. Meanwhile, hosts on the Internet pass the one million mark.

    Randy Bush, John Klensin Found Network Startup Resource Center

    Randy Bush and John Klensin found the non-profit Network Startup Resource Center to develop and deploy Internet networking technology to dozens of countries throughout the world.

    Jean Armour Polly Coins the Term “Surfing the Internet”

    New York librarian Jean Armour Polly writes and publishes one of the first free, nontechnical public guides to the Internet, Surfing the Internet, a term Polly is also credited with coining.

    First Layman's Guide to the Internet is Published

    The Internet Companion, written by Tracy LaQuey Parker, is published as the first layman's guide to the Internet. Translated into eight languages, it becomes an international bestseller.

    Larry Irving Begins Shaping Internet Policy

    Larry Irving becomes one of the key architects of Internet policy as the head of the Commerce Department’s National Telecommunications Infrastructure Administration during the Clinton Administration.

    Nabil Bukhalid Brings the Internet to Lebanon

    Nabil Bukhalid leads the team at the American University of Beirut that brings the Internet to Lebanon and establishes the Lebanese Domain Registry.

    John Cioffi Standardizes DSL

    DMT (Discrete Multitone)-based DSL technology developed by Dr. John Cioffi, “Father of DSL,” becomes the US standard.

    NCSA Releases Mosaic Browser

    Mark Andreessen and Eric Bina create the Mosaic browser at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which helps popularize the World Wide Web among the general public.

    Elise Gerich Founds NANOG

    Elise Gerich founds the North American Network Operators' Group (NANOG) – one of the earliest and most influential professional forums for sharing technical information related to backbone/enterprise networking technologies and operational practices.

    First Internet Backbone Launches In China

    Jianping Wu leads the design, development and evolution of CERNET, the first Internet backbone in China, helping it become the largest national academic network in the country.

    First RFC is Authored

    Erik Huizer authors the first Request for Comments to document not only the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards process but also the procedures for its Working Groups.

    First Direct TCP/IP Connection in Mainland China

    Madam Qiheng Hu leads a delegation to the US for discussions with the National Science Foundation, which facilitates the setting up the first direct TCP/IP connection in mainland China.

    Larry Irving Proves Existence of “Digital Divide”

    Larry Irving produces the first empirical study proving the existence of the “Digital Divide,” which sparks global efforts to close the gap between those who have Internet access and those who do not.

    “Falling Through the Net” Report Cover

    MP3 Is Developed

    Karlheinz Brandenburg and his team settle on a file extension for the audio format, shortening MPEG1, Layer 3 to MP3.

    Suguru Yamaguchi Founds AI3

    Suguru Yamaguchi founds the Asia Internet Interconnection Initiatives (AI3), an Asia-wide research effort to provide broadband Internet connectivity throughout Asia Pacific via satellite.

    New Protocols Enable VoIP

    Dr. Henning Schulzrinne co-develops key protocols that enable Voice over the Internet protocol (VoIP).

    Brewster Kahle Founds Internet Archive Email Surpasses Postal Mail

    There is more email than postal mail in the U.S., and Brewster Kahle founds the Internet Archive, a free digital library with a mission to provide “universal access to all knowledge.” Chronicling over 85 billion pieces of deep Web geology, Kahle creates a history of the Internet’s formation.

    Kc Claffy Founds CAIDA

    Kimberly ‘kc’ Claffy founds the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), where she facilitates research that supports large-scale data collection, curation, and data distribution to the scientific research community.

    Shigeki Goto Fosters APAC Internet Expansion

    Shigeki Goto helps found Asia Pacific Advanced Network (APAN) in 1997, which is instrumental in the expansion of the Internet across Asia-Pacific.

    Asia Pacific Advanced Network Logo

    Paul Vixie Creates MAPS

    Paul Vixie creates the first anti-spam company MAPS (Mail Abuse Prevention System).

    ICANN Appoints First President and CEO

    Michael Roberts becomes the first President and CEO of ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

    Blogs First Appear

    The advent of web publishing tools available to non-technical users spurs the rise of blogs.

    Tan Tin Wee Founds Multilingual Internet DNS

    Tan Tin Wee founds the multilingual Internet domain name system and is instrumental in its internationalization. In the 1990s, under his leadership, Singapore hosts the first Chinese and Tamil websites. He is widely recognized for his award-winning technological efforts in the Tamil-speaking community and guides the development of the Tamil Internet.

    DNSSEC Introduced

    Anne-Marie Eklund Lowinder helps the .SE board understand the importance of DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions), the Internet protocol guards that enable users to be sure they are visiting a secure site.

    Mitchell Baker Helps Found Mozilla Project

    Mitchell Baker gets involved in the Mozilla Project and becomes a founding chairperson of the Mozilla Foundation. She helps legitimize Open Source Internet application clients.

    Craig Newmark Founds Craigslist

    Craig Newmark founds Craigslist, which is to become one of the most widely used websites on the Internet. He changes the way people used classifieds, transforming it into a largely Internet-based industry.

    Nii Quaynor Brings Internet to Africa

    Professor Nii Quaynor, known as Africa’s ‘Father of the Internet,’ convenes the first training workshop for the African Network Operators’ Group. His efforts have a profound impact on the continent’s Internet growth.

    Aaron Swartz Co-Creates RSS

    Aaron Swartz co-creates RSS, a program that collects news from various web pages and puts them in one place for readers, with the goal of making information freely available to everyone.

    Aaron Swartz Helps Build Creative Commons

    Under the leadership of Harvard Law School Professor Lawrence Lessig, Aaron Swartz helped build the open architecture for Creative Commons, which works to minimize the barriers to sharing and reusing research and educational materials.

    Jimmy Wales Launches Wikipedia

    Jimmy Wales launches Wikipedia. There are half a million Internet users.

    Klaas Wierenga Founds eduroam

    Klass Wierenga founds eduroam, a free international roaming service for users in research and education now available in over 100 countries on every continent.

    Mahabir Pun Connects Nepal

    Mahabir Pun, with the help of volunteers from the US and Europe, connects the first village in Nepal to the Internet using long range wireless links built from homemade antennas. This is the beginning of the Nepal Wireless Network, which has since connected 175 villages to the Internet.

    Adiel Akplogan Co-founds AFRINIC

    Adiel Akplogan co-founds AFRINIC, the regional Internet registry for Africa .

    Dorcas Muthoni Founds OPENWORLD LTD

    Dorcas Muthoni founds OPENWORLD LTD, a software company which has been involved in the delivery of some of the most widely used Web and cloud applications in Africa.

    Nancy Hafkin Pens "Cinderella or Cyberella?"

    Dr. Nancy Hafkin authors Cinderella or Cyberella?: Empowering Women in the Knowledge Society, a collection of essays that examines how information and communications technologies empower women.

    Cinderella or Cyberella? Book Cover

    World’s Longest WiFi Record

    Ermanno Pietrosemoli secures the world record for the longest WiFi connection at 382 km.

    China Dominates Internet Usage

    By 2010, there are over 450 million Chinese Internet users.

    China Internet Users Bar Graph

    Royal Wedding Is Biggest Internet Event UCLA Opens Internet History Center

    Live streaming of Will and Kate’s wedding is the biggest event ever watched on the Internet, and UCLA, where the first ARPAnet node was built, opens its Internet History Center.

    Royal Wedding Page Views Graph

    Internet Society Founds Internet Hall of Fame

    The Internet Society founds the Internet Hall of Fame and the first 33 members are inducted in a ceremony in Geneva, Switzerland.


    A Brief History of the Internet

    The Internet started in the 1960s as a way for government researchers to share information. Computers in the '60s were large and immobile and in order to make use of information stored in any one computer, one had to either travel to the site of the computer or have magnetic computer tapes sent through the conventional postal system.

    Another catalyst in the formation of the Internet was the heating up of the Cold War. The Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik satellite spurred the U.S. Defense Department to consider ways information could still be disseminated even after a nuclear attack. This eventually led to the formation of the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the network that ultimately evolved into what we now know as the Internet. ARPANET was a great success but membership was limited to certain academic and research organizations who had contracts with the Defense Department. In response to this, other networks were created to provide information sharing.

    January 1, 1983 is considered the official birthday of the Internet. Prior to this, the various computer networks did not have a standard way to communicate with each other. A new communications protocol was established called Transfer Control Protocol/Internetwork Protocol (TCP/IP). This allowed different kinds of computers on different networks to "talk" to each other. ARPANET and the Defense Data Network officially changed to the TCP/IP standard on January 1, 1983, hence the birth of the Internet. All networks could now be connected by a universal language.


    Se videoen: The Internet - Special AffairCurse Official Video (Januar 2022).